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Juan de Durango
1632 - 1696
Spain
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J. de Durango
Juan de Durango (1632 - 1696), a Spanisch composer; he was born in Falces, Navarre. Durango was baptised there. Perhaps he received his first musical education in Falces. Durango developed his ecclesiastical and musical career in El Escorial (Madrid) which he joined at the age of 18 as a monk. He started as a choir boy and adult singer and he was further educated as a harpist and composer. At least he was appointed maestro de capilla of the Monastery El Escorial. Most of his work is preserved in El Escorial. He wrote masses, sacred music and 43 Villancicos. He is known about his polychoral settings. He arranged he lot of Christmas carols. Durango was in El Escorial an important composer and a great copyist of other important music. He wrote a Missa pro defunctis, Officium defunctorum and lessons for the Office of the dead. He passed away in the El Escorial Monastery in 1696.
Author:Wim Goossens
Missa pro defunctis
Period:Baroque
Musical form:Missa à 4 vocibus inaequalium
Text/libretto:Latin from the Missa pro Defunctis
As far we know and examined in the sources is this Missa pro defunctis not complete it could consists out of the following movements:
- Introitus - Requiem aeternam
- Kyrie - Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie
- Gradual - Requiem Aeternam
- Sequentia Dies Irae
- Sanctus *- Sanctus y Benedictus
- Agnus Dei* - Agnus Dei
- Communio* - Lux aeterna
- Requiescant in pace*
- Respond* - Libera me, Domine de morte aeterna
These movements are set in de Ionian mode and are set for SATB.
The above mentioned movements Sanctus*, Agnus Dei*, Communio,*Requiescant in pace* and Respond* are attributed to Juan Durango. They are found in an anonymous source/folio, Anonimo ff 43v-54 in Catalogo El Escorial Libros de Facitol O Atril (Lf) 10 n. 10. This Missa pro defunctis can be found in the Archivo Musical del El Escorial Madrid no 40080 and in the Catalogo del Archivo del Monasterio de San Lorenzo El Real de El Escorial p 27. f 10 n 8 & p. 28 f.10 n.10.
Author:Wim Goossens
Reponde Mihi
Period:Baroque
Musical form:Motet à 8 vocibus inaequalium
Text/libretto:Latin out of Officium defunctorum
In the Officium Defunctorum Ad Mattutinum/Office of the Dead Matins there are nine lessons prescribed. This Responde mihi is the fourth of the 9 lessons for the Office of the Dead. This Lectio/Lesson is published in the Liber Usualis (edition 1936) page 1791. Juan de Durango sets this Leccion de difuntos Responde mihi for double choir SATB and SATB in coro spezzato style. Interesting is to refer in this case to the two collected Lessons, Lectiones sacrae and Sacrae Lectiones novem composed by Orlando Lassus (1532-1594) in motet-form. These collections are two Motet cycles each of which consists out of the nine Lectiones from the Book Job that is published in the Officium Defunctorum ad Matitutinum or Matins of the Office for the Dead which have been published in the old Liber Usualis (edition 1936), on pages 1782 -1799. These nine Lectiones were full part of the Office for the Dead from the eleventh Century until the Second Vatican Council in 1965 were substantial revisions and alterations of the total Office in the Catholic Church have been made. This Office for the Dead more specific these Lectiones would be read Ad Matutinum, in the morning prior to a Requiem Mass and the Burial. All nine Lessons in the Service were normally followed by a Responsorium. Lassus is as far as we know the first composer who set all nine Lectiones in one composition together.
In this case Juan de Durango sets as far we could found only the fourth lesson, nevertheless seen his position in the Monastery as maestro de Capilla we suppose the other eight lessons have been lost.
This Lesson Responde mihi is set in the Lydian mode and can be found in the Archivo Musical del El Escorial Madrid no 38804 and in the Catalogo del Archivo del Monasterio de San Lorenzo El Real de El Escorial p 262, no 643.
Author:Wim Goossens
Responde mihi

Responde mihi: quantas habeo iniquitates et peccata,
scelera mea et delicta ostende mihi.
Cur faciem tuam abscondis et arbitraris me inimicum tuum?
Contra folium quid vento rapitur, ostendis potentiam tuam,
et stipulam seccam persequeris?
Scribis enim contra me amaritudines,
et consumere me vis peccatis adolescentiae meae,
Posuisti in nervo pedem meum,
et observasti omnes semitas meas,
et vestigia pedum meorum considerasti:
qui quasi putredo consumendus sum,
et quasi vestimentum quod comeditur a tinea.

Translation
Answer thou me, how great iniquities, and sins I have,
my wicked deeds, and my offences shew thou me.
Why hidest thou thy face and thinkest me thine enemy?
Against the leaf that is violently taken with the wind,
thou shewest thy might, and persecutest dry stubble.
For thou writest bitterness against me,
and wilt consume me with the sins of my youth.
Thou hast put my foot in band,
and hast observed all my paths, and hast considered the steps of my feet.
Who as rottenness am to be consumed, and as a garment
that is eaten of the moth.
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Libera me Domine de viis
Period:Baroque
Composed in:1670
Musical form:Motet a 4 vocibus inaequales
Text/libretto:Latin from the Officium Defunctorum
The ”Libera me Domine de viis” is in general a plainchant from the Officium Defunctorum/ Office of the Dead more specific a Responsorium sung at the closing ad Matutinum/Matins.
The Libera Domine in general is a well-known Respond in the Office of the Dead; there are in general (4) plain-chant variations of Libera (me) Domine known. This Libera me Domine de viis is an old Responsorium out of the Officium Defunctorum see the Liber Usualis (ed. 1936 page 1798-1799). There are about 138 Responsoria de Officium Defunctorum known and used all over Europe during centuries in the Office of the Dead. They are all well-ordered. This Libera me Domine de viis is Respond nr. 40. To this Repond belongs Versicle nr. 31 “Clamantes et dicentes”.
Juan de Durange sets this Respond for SATB in about 1670. There are two different publications in the Archivo San Lorenzo de el Escorial. This motet is set in the Dorian mode.
In the version biblionumber 40643 is concluded that the Bajo version is probable from maestro Diego Torijos (1653-1691).
This Respond Libera me Domine de viis can be found in the Archivo Musical del El Escorial Madrid no 40079 & 40643 and in the Catalogo del Archivo del Monasterio de San Lorenzo El Real de El Escorial p 27, (Lf) 10 no. 7. and in page 561 no 1919-no 9 & 10.
Author:Wim Goossens
Libera me Domini de viis inferni

R Libera me, Domine, de viis inferni
qui portas aereas confregisti :
et visitasti infernum,
et dedisti eis lumen ut viderent te :
*qui erant in paenis tenebrarum.
V Clamantes et dicentes
advenisti Redemptor noster.
*qui erant in paenis tenebrarum.
V Requiem aeternam dona eis Domine
Et lux perpetua luceat eis
*Qui erant in paenis tenebrarum

Translation
R Deliver me O Lord from the ways of hell,
which hast broken the brazen gates, and hast visited hell,
and hast given light to them, that they might behold thee,
*which were in the pains of darkness.
V Crying and saying
come here redeemer.
*which were in the pains of darkness.
V Eternal rest give unto them, O Lord
And let perpetual light shine upon them.
*which were in the pains of darkness.
Author:Wim Goossens