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Juan de Anchieta
c.1462 - 1523
Spain, Basque Country
Picture
J. de Anchieta
Juan de Anchieta (c.1462 - 30/07/1523), a Basque composer. He was grown up into a leading Basque family. Probably Anchieta was born in Urrestilla.( Urrestilla is a village of Gipuzkoa, but belongs to the municipality of Azpeitia in Basque). He was of an old and noble ancestry, his mother was a great-aunt of Saint Ignatius de Loyola, the founder of the Society of Jesus. Until the present not anything but a very little that is known of the youth of Anchieta and his musical studies. He seems to have attended in the University of Salamanca. The first document that states his artistic personality is the appointment of Anchieta as Chaplain and Singer of the Castilian Royal Chapel of Isabella, "the Catholic", in 1489 and some later in 1495 he was appointed Maestro di Capilla to Prince Don John, but in 1497 he returned to the Queen’s service after the Prince’s death. After Isabella died, Anchieta served Juana the Mad and Philip, travelling to Brussels with them. Being to the service of the Royal House of Castille and Aragon, Anchieta has obtained, in addition, a Benefit in Villarino, a Canon in Granada, the titles of Abbot of Arbás, Rector of San Sebastián de Soreasu and finally, Anchieta was during some time from 1500 Rector of the Parish church at Azpeitia, until his death. In addition, according to another document, Anchieta was also appointed Chaplain and Singer in the Court of King Fernando, in 1512. Carlos V, finally, in Royal Certificate dated in 1519, affirms: "... the this Anchieta is already old to reside in our Court... "and orders the monarch who are paid to the musician" forty-five thousand Maravedis (one Marvedi was ten Denarii) to him this present year... and in ahead every year... " De Anchieta spent his finale years, after retiring in 1518, in a Franciscan convent he founded in Azpeitia. Anchieta died in Azpeitia, July the 30th 1523.Juan De Anchieta, was one of the main composers in the beginning of the Renaissance music art and he is one of the creators of polyphonic sacred and profane music of the Spain at the end of the XV century and the beginning of the XVI century. Two remarkable masses (among others Missa sine nomine or Missa quarti toni) , two Magnificats, four Passion settings, one Salve Regina, and other religious works, motets, are known from this composer. He was one of the leading Spanish Church composers of his time and he composed serving the Court Chapel of the catholic Kings. With Francisco de Torre (c.1460-1504), De Anchieta wrote one surviving Responsory which is – besides known Requiem Masses from others - the earliest known settings in Europe from works out of Matins of the Dead.
Author:Wim Goossens
Contributor:Tassos Dimitriadis (picture)
Libera me, Domine, de morte aeterna
Period:Early Renaissance
Composed in:1497c
Musical form:motet à 4 vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin from the Exsequiarum Ordo de Officium Defunctorum
Duration:7'37''
Label(s):Virgin Veritas, 45328
Harmonia Mundi 907328
The Libera me, Domine, de morte is a motet from the Exsequiarum Ordo more specific a Responsorium sung during the final blessing of the coffin on its catafalque. This Libera me. (there are more (4) plain-chant variations known in Matins of the Dead) is an old Responsorium out of the “In Exsequis” and sung in the part “Absolutio super tulum” and is published in the old Liber Usualis pages 1763 – 1771. This Libera me, Domine, de morte aeterna is set by De Anchieta for four voices (SATB). According to G.Wagstaff this Libera me, Domine is one of the earliest identified and survived Responsories settings out of the Matins of the Dead – not included the Mass - by any European composer.
This Responsory is set in alternatim, an alternation form that means a few words, small segments are set in polyphonic style and the rest of the wording of the Responsory is the used plainchant at that time and these sequence will be repeated several times. So small segments of the Responsory are set polyphonically followed by plainchant parts.
Author:Wim Goossens