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Pompeo Cannicciari
1666 - 1744
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P. Cannicciari
Pompeo Cannicciari (1666 - 1744) was an Italian composer who was born in Valentano, a municipality of the province of Viterbo. Despite other theories Cannicciari, is listed the first time (1679) in Rome thanks to the book of SA Stati d’Anime de Saxia (district Saxon of Rome) from 1679 to the age of eleven. In this city he spent his entire life. Little is known about his education, but Cannicciari lived since 1679 in the "Salita di S. Spirito", when Cannicciari was thirteen years old. It’s assumable he got his final musically education in the Sancto Spirito, perhaps earlier a start for that education in Valentano? He was a musically very talented boy. It is from the year 1686 Cannicciari starts as 20 years old his task of composer. In the period 1686-1694 twelve compositions are found. In 1694 he was appointed maestro di cappella at the Church of the Holy Spirit in Saxia/Saxon/Rome. He stayed there as maestro up to 1709. The number of Cannicciari compositions is increasing that year significantly, only because he had to respond to the labor - and liturgical - demands of his new position. Cannicciari was a representative of the Roman school but in the baroque era with concerted passages (Musica concertato) and successor of the style of sacred polyphony of Orzaio Benevoli (1605-1744). Cannicciari succeeded Alessandro Scarlatti (1685-1757) as chapel master at the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major (Santa Maria Maggiore) in 1709. He served in this office until his death in 1744. Cannicciari was member of the Congregation of Saint Cecilia and was Guardian of the section of the chapel masters (Congregazione dei Musici Cannincciari was Guardiano della sezione dei maestri) in 1698 and 1715 to 1718. Cannicciari ‘bequeathed’ his total collection of music manuscripts to the Basilica Santa Maria Maggiore. In 1744 after his death, he was succeeded by his student, Sante Pesci (1720-1786), who had been a member of the choir Santa Maria Maggiore. Pesci was directed to made an inventory of the entire music archive, thus providing historical documentation for the works of Cannicciari. Cannicciari was a prolific author of numerous (900) sacred works, including masses, he preferred to devote himself to the production of masses and psalms and polyphony, demonstrating skills in counterpoint. Cannicciari has an imposing oeuvre of sacred music he wrote 45 Masses; 146 Graduals; 120 Offertories; 226 Antiphons; 179 Psalms; 45 Hymns; 38 Responds; 56 motets.
Author:Wim Goossens
Dies Irae
Composed in:1697
Musical form:Plainchant and Motet
Text/libretto:Latin Missa pro defunctis
This sequentia “Dies Irae” is the text from the sequence out of the Missa pro defunctis, Mass of the Dead, (liber Usualis edition 1936, page 1810-1813). This famous text and melody is set by Pompeo Cannicciari for plainchant, choir with four voices (SATB) and a choir with eight voices (two choirs SATBxSATB). The probable fourth alternation is not available for us. Unfortunately we couldn’t find a full Missa pro defunctis by de Cannicciari in the sources searched. We suppose Jacobus de Kerle (c.1531-1591) was the second Netherlandish to set the sequence “Dies Irae”, in a polyphonic alternating setting. Since 1570 the Dies Irae was added to the Mass of the Dead in the Liber Usualis. De Kerle was involved in de Council of Trent and took knowledge of the developments there and the concluded implementation of the Dies Irae in the Office of the Dead. One of the most famous melodies of the Gregorian Chant is traditionally ascribed to Tommaso da Celano (c.1200 – c.1270), but nowadays usually attributed to an unknown Franciscan of that period. The piece is based upon Zep 1:14-16, a reflection upon the final judgment day. It was removed from the ordinary form of the Roman Rite mass in the liturgical reform of 1969–1970. We mention too earlier settings by Engarandus Juvenis (found in the Staffarda Codex), Antoine Brumel (c.1460-c.1513) and a polyphonic setting of “Pie Jesu Domine” by de Morales (c.1500-1553). We examined unfortunately a incomplete fragment of the Sequentia pro Defunctis from 1713, no. 138, set by Cannicciari. But there is an Autograph manuscript from 1697 found of this Sequentia pro Defunctis. This work is one of the examples of alternation between the known plainchant in verse 4 (Mors stupebit), 8 (Rex tremendae), 12 (Ingemisco) and 16 (Confutatis) and we suppose a chorus SATB in verse 2 (Quantus tremor) and a Chorus (Coro1 SATB x Coro2 SATB) in verse 3 (Tuba mirum). That’s what we see in the score, an autograph manuscript by Cannicciari. In the score we see the frequent repetition of the belonging plainchant in the verses mentioned above (verses 4, 8, 12, 16) a fragment of a separate SATB chorus and the full setting of a chorus SATB x SATB. The last chorus is set homophonic and the first chorus SATB more imitative. In our opinion we are missing in this case the setting of the verses 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, it could be an organ-part and of course the full setting of the first chorus SATB. There should be an organ-part available in conformity with RISM. That means the Chorus SATB setting is used in verses 2, 6,10, 14,18 and the Chorus SATB x SATB setting is used in the verses 3, 7, 11, 15, 19. Normally the Verses 20 and 21 are set for a closing chorus. That part of the score is not available. Cannicciari uses in the polychoral setting the modus C 3/2. As already mentioned before we could not examine the full score of this Dies Irae. See for the text of the Dies Irae the Latin the text version at the start of this large website, button latin text. This work is found in | Sequentia pro Defunctis | Pompeo Cannicciari | 1697, Coro 1: S, A, T, B, Coro 2: S, A, T, B, org. Autograph manuscript: 1697 (1697); and in Cannicciari. Sequentia pro Defunctis. à 4. Ag.o 1713, score: 2f. Autograph manuscript: 1713 (1713)
Author:Wim Goossens
Credo, quod Redemptor
Composed in:1730
Musical form:Musical form: Motet per quator vocum
Text/libretto:Latin Officium Defunctorum ad Matutinum
In memory of:Pope Benedictus XIII
In on the 21st of February 1730 Pope Benedictus XIII died. On that occasion Pompeo Cannicciari set a four-parts funeral motet SATB ‘Credo, quod Redemptor’ for his salvation. In the head of this score Cannicciari wrote: Responsorij a 4 per il trasporto del Corpo del Sommo Pontefice Benedetto XIII Musica di D. Pompeo Canniciari, Responds à 4 at the transportation of the body of the Supreme Pontiff Benedict XIII music by Pompeo Cannicciari. This music sounded on that occasion. As we know and often mentioned here, the Respond Credo quod redemptor meus vivit (after Lectio I) and others are an integral part of the Officium Defunctorum Ad Matutinum, Office of the Dead ad Matins as published in the Liber Usualis (edition 1936, p.1772-1787). At this stage we don’t know whether or not Pompeo Cannicciari set a fully Office of the Dead. As we saw in the Renaissance period more composers have set parts or the whole Officium defunctorum we mention out of the Renaissance Giosoffo Zarlino (1517-1590), Giovanni Asola (ca.1528-1609), Estêvâo de Brito (c.1570 - 1641), Lodovico da Viadana (1564 - 1627), Duarte Lôbo -Latin: Eduardus Lupus- (ca.1565 - 1646), Marco da Gagliano (1582 - 1642), Giovanni Giacomo Gastoldi (ca.1554 – 1622), Filipe de Magalhães (ca.1571 – 1652), Sebastián de Vivanco (ca.1551 - 1622), Orlandus Lassus- (1532 - 1594), Christobal de Morales (ca.1500 - 1553), Giovanni da Palestrina (1525-1594, Francisco Garro (ca. 1580-1660) and Juan Vasquez (ca.1510 - 1560). A Respond “Credo quod Redemptor” is a motet from the Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum ad Matutinum. In general a Respond from Matins of the Office of the Dead. While we examined carefully the score we ascertained Cannicciari has set really three fragments (the first part of each Respond) out of three funeral Responds with a closing Requiem aeternam allout of The Office of the Dead together. This funeral motet consists out of the first two sentences of each Respond, merged together by Cannicciari of Credo quod redemptor meus vivit, Qui Lazarum, and Domine quando veneris and a closing Requiem aeternam,. In fact this motet has four movements. Those three Responds and the Requiem aeternam are all part of the first Nocturn of the Office of the dead. It’s very special Cannicciari did so. We never saw it before. All the belonging Verses of those Responds are omitted by Cannicciari to create one great work in honouring Pope Benedict XIII at his funeral. It is generally known the Santa Maria Maggiore is one of the four Papal Basilica in Rome and is under the fully direct jurisdiction of the Pope. Cannicciari was at that time maestro di cappella of the Santa Maria Maggiore! In general the Credo quod Redemptor, Qui Lazarum and Domine quando veneris are old Responds and still used and published in the old Liber Usualis (Edition 1936, page 1785-1787) and sung after Lesson I - Lectio primo -, lesson II – Lectio II- and Lesson III – Lectio III- out of the Office of the Dead in the first Nocturn. As member of the Roman School Cannicciari sets this motet in a way you can hear the text really well. Of course there is much Baroque texture in this composition. In general the style of Cannicciari in this special funeral motet is throughout this piece an alternation between solo and tutti (solo and ripieno, see Ms. 1-20 tutti; Ms. 20-27 solo; Ms. 28-38 tutti; Ms. 38-49 solo; Ms. 49-65 tutti). Cannicciari starts this motet homophonic in modus ₵ with ‘Credo’ in SATB, in fact the first Respond. In the words ‘de terra’ and in ‘videbo’ Cannicciari uses word-painting in paired-part descending quavers (“terra’) and descending and ascending quavers ‘videbo’ ending in G-major. In Ms. 20 he starts with the second Respond ‘Qui Lazarum’ in homophonic style with solo. As from Ms. 28 Cannicciari uses the triple modus 3/2, with lots of modulation (very moving in Ms. 30-33) with a striking dissonant-chord (in Ms. 32-3 g-f2-a1-b1) ending in D-major. In Ms. 38 Cannicciari starts again in modus ₵ with ‘Domine quando veneris’ the third Respond in a short imitative style ending homophonic in G-major at the words ‘mea vita,’ Ms. 52. Cannicciari ends this very special motet with an imitative ‘requiem aeternam’ with lots of quavers. In Ms. 62-63 he gives musically accents at the words ‘luceat eis’ in again modulations even in the second ‘luceat eis’ ending in a stilled D-major. This funeral motet imitatively written, with homophonic texture on this special occasion consists in total out of 65 Measures. This Motet is found in I. Composizioni | di | Tommaso Ludovico Vittoria | e di altri Compositori | della Cappella Pontificia | N.B. vi sono composizioni di | Maestri di altre Cappelle | Con fatica raccolte da F[ortunato] S[antini]. Et II. Responsorij a 4 | per il trasporto | del Corpo del Sommo Pontefice | Benedetto XIII | Musica | di D. Pompeo Canniciari MDCCXXX; III. [caption title:] Allerseelentag nur bei Beerdigungen. | Sammlung | ausgezeichneter Compositionen für den Kaiser. | "Credo quod redemptor meus vivit" | "Qui Lazarum resuscitasti" | "Domine, quando veneris" | für vier Stimmen | [crossed out:] Benedetto XIII. | Musica | von | Pompeo Canniciari. | [pencil:] München in der Bibliothek des Prinzen Manuskript N. 62 Copy 1800-1833.
Author:Wim Goossens
I. Credo quod Redemptor meus vivit
et in novissimo die de terra surrecturus sum
et in carne mea videbo Deum salvatorem meum.
II. Qui Lazarum resuscitasti a monumento foetidum,
Tu eis Domine,
dona requiem et locum indulgentiae.
III. Domine, quando veneris judicare terram,
ubi me abscondam a vultu irae tuae?
Quia peccavi nimis in vita mea.
IV. Requiem aeternam dona eis Domine
Et lux perpetua luceat eis.

I. For I know that my redeemer liveth,
and that on the latter day I shall be resurrected from the earth:
and in my flesh shall I see God, my Saviour.
II. Thou which did raise Lazarus stinking from the grave:
Thou O Lord give them rest, and place of pardon
III. O Lord, when thou comest to judge the world,
where shall I hide myself from the face of thy wrath?
For I have sinned exceedingly in my life.
IV. Give them eternal rest, O Lord,
and let perpetual light shine on them.
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Pope Benedictus XIII