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Jachet de Mantua
1483 - 1559
France
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J. de Mantua
Jachet de Mantua (1483 - 02/10/1559) (or Jachet de Mantoue, Jacques Colebault, Jacquet, Giachetto, Iachettus) his real name was Jacques Colebault is a Breton who was born in Vitré, France. Less is known about his youth and his education. Between 1513 and 1515 De Mantua came to Italy – Modena, Ferrara, Mantua -, where he first worked as a singer to the Modenese house of Rangoni. And some later he worked for the Este family for Sigismondo and later Duke Alfonso I in Ferrara. He met in that time – 1525 - and later Adrian Willaert ( c.1488-1562), who was a year later appointed Maestro di Cappella (1526-1562) of St. Mark’s Venice. About 1526 De Mantua went to Mantua in joining and serving Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga’s chapel. From 1534 until 1559 he was Maestro di cappella, Chapel-master of Mantua Cathedral. De Mantua should not be confused with Jacquet de Berchem ( c.1505- c.1567) which often occurred.
During his life De Mantua was highly estimated and his works were even during his life widely published by Scotto and Gardeno editors in Venice. Due to his stay in Italy De Mantua develops quicker his style from four-voice texture with voice-paring to full sonority of five-voice writing. He was a very prolific composer and he composed some psalm-settings for double-choir together with Adrian Willaert, among others Psalm 126, which settings are antiphonal rather than poly-choral. Jachet de Mantua wrote 24 Masses, 110 sacred motets, 13 occasional and state motets, 3 Magnificat settings, 27 Vesper-hymns and psalms and two Passions. He passed away in Mantova, Italy, the 2nd of October 1559.
Author:Wim Goossens
Caligaverunt oculi mei
Period:Early Renaissance
Composed in:1539c
Musical form:Motet ŕ 5 vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin from a Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum
The ‘Caligaverunt’ is a motet from the Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum ad Matutinum composed for four voices (STTTB). This ‘Caligaverunt oculi mei’ is an old Responsorium. There are about 138 Responsoria de Officium Defunctorum, Responds from Office of the Dead known and used during centuries in the Office of the Dead. They are all well ordered, this is number 9. The choice of texts and the order in which they occur in the sources all around Europe vary according to local uses! This version of ‘Caligaverunt oculi mei’ is used in Ambrosian Offices of the Dead from 1470. But this text is even used in Verona, Monza, Saint-Denis, even with the belonging Versicle number 171 in the Offices of the Dead. A part of the text is too a responsorium ad Matutinum Hebdomae, Respond out of the Matins for Good-Friday of the Holy week, but as written the ‘Caligaverunt oculi mei’ is an old respond out of the Office of the Dead. For instance in 1585 de Victoria (1548-1611) set a total Officium Hebdomae Sanctae: Tenebrae Responsories - Offices of the Holy Week, in darkness - rather 37 pieces are in it and the ‘Caligaverunt’ is a part of it. The setting by Jachet de Mantua was published in Iachet musici suavissimi celeberrimique musices reverendissimi cardinalis Mantue magistri motecta quinque vocum. Venice 1539. Jachet de Mantua did not use the belonging Versicle ‘O vos omnes’ like we saw by Jacobus Clemens non Papa (Jacob Clement c.1510-c.1556). This motet is written in modest but flowing paired-voice polyphonic style. The total motet contains 99 bars. Jachet de Mantua uses some paired-voice polyphony. This motet starts immediately with the paired Soprano and Tenor I (Bars 1- 6), followed by Tenor III (repeating in bar 7-10 the Soprano-theme ) and followed by the paired Tenor II and Bassus (Bars 9-15). In the following parts of the motet Jachet repeats new developed short motives in using nearly all voices. Jachet de Mantua uses flats to express his feelings and uses some sharp chords and fine dissonant in rich colouring this motet. Of course you feel and hear the Italian influences and in that sense it’s interesting to hear and see the achieved riches of this setting by Jachet de Mantua This motet is too some later published in 1553 in Iachet musici suavissimi celeberrimique musices reverendissimi cardinalis Mantue magistri motecta quinque vocum diligentissime recognita.- Venezia, A. Gardane, 1553, 5 vol.
Author:Wim Goossens
Text:
R. Caligaverunt oculi mei a fletu meo: quia elongatus est a me qui consolabatur me: videte omnes populi, si est dolor similis, sicut dolor meus.
Translation:
R. My eyes have grown dim with weeping; for he that consoled me is far from me. See, all ye people, Is there any sorrow like my suffering?
Contributor:Wim Goossens