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Juan Esquivel de Barahona
c.1560 - c.1615
Spain
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J. Esquivel de Barahona
Juan Esquivel de Barahona (c.1560 - c.1615), a Spanish composer. He was born in Ciudad Rodrigo, where it is supossed he was taught by Juan Navarro who, by the way, was also a teacher of Tomás Luis de Victoria. The first data that we have about him is his appointment as Chapel Master of Oviedo Catedral, following a lawsuit against the Chapter because they had appointed master Alonso Puro without respecting a previous agreement with Esquivel. In Oviedo he remained until 1585. After this time, we do not know with certainty the details of his life. Mateo Hernández Vegas afirms that from Oviedo he went to Calahorra, and then to Ávila, and finally to Ciudad Rodrigo. However others place him in Salamanca in 1608. Esquivel was one of the few Iberian musicians who had the good fortune of having their works printed. In particular we know three books.
The first one, edited in Salamanca in 1608, is entitled Missarum liber primus and contains 6 masses from 4 to 8 voices (one of them is a requiem) and the antiphon Asperges me.
The second book, edited the same year and in the same city, is entitled Motecta Festorum et Dominicarum cum Communi Sanctorum IV, V, VI et VIII vocibus concinenda. It contains seventy-one motets, mostly for 4 voices, composed with the finest technics of the epoch.
The third book is the most important because it contains: eight vesper psalms plus the Song of Simeon; a Nunc dimitis for 4 voices; twenty-nine hymns for 4 voices; sixteen Magnificats, most of which are written for 4 voices; the four Marian antiphons; five different pieces plus one motet; seven masses for 4 and 5 voices and one Officium defunctorum.
Delicta iuventutis meae (pro defunctis)
Period:Late Renaissance
Musical form:motet
In paradisum (pro defunctis)
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1608
Musical form:fragment
Text/libretto:Latin
A motet from the Exsequiarum Ordo more specific the final blessing of the coffin on its catafalque before leaving the church after the Mass of the Dead. The In paradisum is an old Antiphona out of In Exsequis and Absolutio super tulum published in the Liber Usualis pages 1763 - 1771. This Antiphon is still often sung after the Mass of the Dead, the day of the burial, as the body is being carried from the church to the cemetery, and during the burial. The In paradisum is even known as a Responsorium! This In paradisum is set by Esquivel for six voices (SSAATB). This setting (SATTBB) by Esquivel was published in Salamanca in 1608 in two volumes in Missarum liber primus and in Motecta Festorum Sacrarum cantiones cum sex vocibus liber secundus. In paradisum is set in a modest contrapuntal movement and ends even in A major.
Author:Wim Goossens
Lacrimosa
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1608
Musical form:Motet ŕ 4 vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin mass
This is the last part of the Sequentia Dies irae set by Esquivel which is found in Psalmorum, Hymnorum, Magnificarum, et B. Maria quatuor antiphonarum de tempore, necnon et missarum published in Salamanca 1613. This part is set for four voices (SATB). The Latin Sequentia Dies irae is published in 1570 and for the first time from 1570 included in the Liber Usualis part Mass for the Dead.
Lacrimosa is set in a fine dramatic modest counterpoint movement. This part can not really used with the modern version of Dies Irae, the Cantus Firmus, the chant is not based on the modern version in the Liber Usualis.
Author:Wim Goossens
Requiescant in pace Amen
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1608
Musical form:Motet ŕ 4, 5 vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin
This is the last part of the Missae pro defunctis sung before the burial starts. Requiescant in pace Amen, May they rest in peace, Amen! It is even sung and published in the In Exsequiis. The first part is written by Esquivel for four voices (SSAT) and the Amen for five voices (SSATB) and even ends in Major and only contains 8 bars.
This part is published in Psalmorum, Hymnorum, Magnificarum, et B. Maria quatuor antiphonarum de tempore, necnon et missarum in Salamanca 1613.
Author:Wim Goossens
Missa pro defunctis a 5 vocibus
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1608c
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
The total content of this Missa pro defunctis for five voices is as far to me unknown. Esquivel wrote two Requiem settings one for four voices (1613) and one for five voices (1608) this last Requiem setting is unfortunately incomplete due to damages of the only lasting source but was published in Missarum liber primus in Salamanca 1608.
Author:Wim Goossens
Officium defunctorum
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1613
Musical form:officium
Text/libretto:daily prayers, psalms, hymns, lectures, etc.
This Officium is from the third book (see above).
This Officium defunctorum contains:
1. Responde Mihi, fourth Lesson of the secundo nocturno ad Matutinum
2. Introitus: Requiem aeternam
3. Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie
4. Tractus: Absolve, Domine
5. Offertorium: Domine Jesu Christe
6. Sanctus
7. Benedictus
8. Agnus Dei I, II, III
9. Communio: Lux aeterna
10. Lacrimosa
11. Ne recorderis, last Responsorium of the secundo nocturno ad Matutinum
12. Requiescant in pace & Amen
These parts of the Officium defunctorum are included in the third Book by Esquivel, other sacred music Psalmorum, Hymnorum, Magnificarum, et B. Maria quautor antiphonarum de tempore, necnon et missarum and published in Salamanca 1613. The Officium Defunctorum is mostly written for four voices (SATB).
The parts above stated are indicated as an Officium Defunctorum and a lot of them in the same version are even published in the Missa pro Defunctis for four voices.
Author:Wim Goossens
Missa pro defunctis a 4 vocibus
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1613c
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
This Missa pro defunctis is a four part requiem written for four voices (SATB) and contains:
- Introitus: Requiem aeternam
- Kyrie
- Tractus: Absolve, Domine
- Offertorium: Domine Jesu Christe
- Sanctus
- Benedictus
- Agnus Dei
- Communio: Lux aeterna
This Requiem setting is found in a Book with Psalmorum, Hymnorum, Magnificarum, et B. Maria quatuor antiphonarum de tempore, necnon et missarum published in 1613 by Ioannis, Esquivel. The "Offertorium" and "Communio" are written in more contrapuntal movements on the other hand the "Introitus", "Kyrie", "Tractus", "Sanctus" and "Agnus Dei" are written in more homophonic style with counterpoints elements. In this Book of 1613 more parts out of a Officium defunctorum by Esquivel have been published.
Author:Wim Goossens
Source:Vanderbeek & Imrie ltd.