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Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla
c. 1590 - 1664
Spain / Mexico
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J.G. de Padilla
Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla (c. 1590 - 1664) was a Spanish composer who went to the New World Mexico, Nuevo España. De Padilla was born in Spain at Málaga probably around 1590. He was musically educated by Francisco Vásquez at Málaga Cathedral. In 1613 de Padilla was appointed maestro di capilla at the Cathedral in Jérez de la Frontera and from 1616 up to 1620 he was maestro di capilla at the Cathedral in Cádiz. Between 1620 and 1622 De Padilla went to the New World, became singer and assistant-maestro at the Puebla Cathedral, the second largest city in colonial Mexico, where de Padilla was appointed maestro di capilla from 1629 until his death (in Puebla). The Puebla Catedral had at de Padilla’s time was a flourishing musical establishment out of Spain. At the end of his long tenure, the music by de Padilla was copied and preserved into large imposing choir-books - Libros de Coro - by order of the cathedral chapter. De Padilla adheres to the earlier style of the Spanish Renaissance. By 1650 De Padilla was given a prebendary. De Padilla is the most important 17th century composer working in Mexico. Padilla is one of the more important composers represented in the large manuscripts at Puebla, Mexico and the Library collection in Chicago, Illinois. The majority of his prolific output (over seven hundred pieces survive in Pueblo) include Masses, sacred motets, often for double choir, is set in the Spanish Renaissance style or stile antico as well as villancicos.
Author:Wim Goossens
Dies irae
Period:Late Renaissance
Musical form:Motet à 8 vocibus
Text/libretto:Thomas de Celano
“Dies Irae” is the text from the sequence out of the Missa pro defunctis, Mass of the Dead. This famous text and melody is set by Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla - the 17th century composer native from Spain working in Mexico - for eight voices (two choirs SATB-SATB) and a Bass-Baritone solo. Unfortunately we couldn’t find a full Missa pro defunctis by de Padilla in the sources searched. We suppose Jacobus de Kerle (c.1531-1591) was the second Netherlandish to set the sequence “Dies Irae”, in a polyphonic alternating setting. Since 1570 the Dies Irae was added to the Mass of the Dead in the Liber Usualis. De Kerle was involved in de Council of Trent and took knowledge of the developments there and the concluded implementation of the Dies Irae in the Office of the Dead. One of the most famous melodies of the Gregorian Chant is traditionally ascribed to Tommaso da Celano (c.1200 – c.1270), but nowadays usually attributed to an unknown Franciscan of that period. The piece is based upon Zep 1:14-16, a reflection upon the final judgment day. It was removed from the ordinary form of the Roman Rite mass in the liturgical reform of 1969–1970. We mention too earlier settings by Engarandus Juvenis (found in the Staffarda Codex), Antoine Brumel (c.1460-c.1513) and the polyphonic settings of “Pie Jesu Domine” by de Morales (c.1500-1553). De Padilla has chosen for a the Bass-Baritone to sing the known plainchant (see the old Liber Usualis page 1810 vv) alternating with double-choir set by de Padilla. The choir in Puebla Cathedral in the 17th century consisted out of twelve adult-singers and fourteen choirboys. This “Dies Irae” setting by de Padilla is found in an old manuscript, Puebla Cathedral Libro de Coro 3, folios copied in the later 17th century. That Choir-book contains settings for the Requiem and Matins from different composers, like Vasquez (c.1510-1560), de Morales (c.1500-1553), Manuel or Nicolas Tabares, Juan de La Torre (c.1460-1504), Hernando Franco (1532-1585) and of course Gutiérrez de Padilla. In that Book Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla is present with one Lesson IV “Responde Mihi”, “Versa est in Luctum”, “Circumdederunt me” and this “Dies Irae”. See for the text the Latin text version at the start of this website, button latin text.
Author:Wim Goossens
Circumdederunt me doloris mortis
Period:Late Renaissance
Musical form:Motet a 6 vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin from Officium Defunctorum
Duration:4’01”
Label(s):RCM 19901
Text:
R. Circumdederunt me dolores mortis et pericula inferni invenerunt me.
V. Et in tribulatione mea invocavi Dominum, et clamavi ad Deum meum clamavi.
(V. Tribulationem et dolorem inveni, et nomen Domini invocavi.)
(V. O Domine, libera animam meam et convertere in requiem tuam.)

Translation:
R. The anguish of death surrounds me; and the pains of hell hold upon me.
V. In my affliction I have called upon the Lord and to my God I cried.
(V. met with trouble and sorrow, and I called upon the name of the Lord.)
(V. O Lord, deliver my soul, and return unto thy rest.)
Contributor:Wim Goossens
This Antiphon is used in the Officium Defunctorum ad Matutinum and set by Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla for six voices (SSAATB). The Circumdederunt is often especially used by Spanish and Portuguese composers in the Office of the Dead like Cristobal de Morales (c.1500-1553), Pedro Fernandez (1483-1547), Aires Fernandez (16th C.), Juan de Avila ( 16th C.), Hernando Franco (1532-1585), Sebastián de Vivanco (c.1551-1622), Bartolomeo Trosylho (1500-1567), the German Balthasar de Senarius (c.1485-1544) and even Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594), Jacob Regnart (1540-1599) and William Byrd (1543-1623) did. The settings by Jacobus Clemens and Philippus de Monte have until yet not been judged in this context. As we saw this Antiphon is set by them all as an invitatory Antiphon for the Office of the Dead. On the other hand the interesting plainchant Circumdederunt is often used in chansons, motets, parody masses, elegies and even used in the splendid Requiem Mass by the Jean Richafort (c.1480-c.1547) a composer belonging to the third Netherlandish generation. Even the Cirumdederunt is an Introit in Dominica Septuagesima. This Antiphon is chosen and set by Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla as an invitatory antiphon (Motet) used at Matins of the Dead or at the Office of the Dead. This motet Circumdederunt is written in an vast polyphonic imitative flowing style. De Padilla didn’t use the second verse, “Tribulationem”, placed between brackets by us see the Text below but in stead of that de Padilla uses the first sentence of verse 7 out of Psalm 17 starting with “Et in tribulatione”. This motet contains 72 bars and starts with Altus, followed by Tenor, Cantus 1, Cantus 2 and Bassus. De Padilla uses some accidentals and this piece is full of strength and dignity and shows the thoroughly polyphonic style of the old Spain in which Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla has grown up before heading for the New World, Mexico. This six-part Circumdederunt me, is found in Puebla Cathedral, Libros de Coro XV, part 2, folios147v-150r.
Author:Wim Goossens
Versa est in luctum
Period:Late Renaissance
Musical form:Motet à 5 vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin Officium Defunctorum
Duration:3’24”
Label(s):SIGCD 119
Teldec 48556
RCM 19901
CORO 16059
Text:
R. Versa est in luctum cithara mea et organum meum in vocem flentium.
Parce mihi, Domine, nihil enim sunt dies mei.
[ V. Cutis mea denigrate est super me et ossa mea aruerunt.]

Translation:
R. My harp is tuned for lamentation and my organ into the voice of those who weep.
Spare me Lord, for my days are as nothing.
[ V. My skin is black upon me and my bones are dried up.]
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Versa est in Luctum is a plainchant from the Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum Responsory from Matins of the Dead set by de Padilla in a motet for five voices (SSATB). The Versa est in luctum is an old Responsorium and even used and set by for instance Francisco de Peñalosa (c.1470-1528), Alonso Lobo (c.1535-1617), Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548-1611), Sebastián de Vivanco (c.1550-1622), Estêvão Lopes Morago (c.1575-1630) and José de Torres y Martinez Bravo (1665-1738). Those settings from “Versa est in luctum” have to be considered as an Iberian inheritance. There are about 138 Responsoria de Officium Defunctorum known and used during centuries in the Office of the Dead. They are all well ordered. The Versa est in Luctum is Respond nr 95. The belonging Versicle nr. 43 Cutis mea is not set too by de Padilla, like many others did. In general the Versa est Luctum has become in certain minor European regions a Respond in the Office of the Dead. This Respond is found with some introductions in two Offices of the Dead in Lyon. And from there it is spread into Europe. The settings in Spain and Portugal are taken from contemporary chant books containing responds which are deemed suitable for funeral purposes. In some instances, a motet was sung between the oration and the absolution. It was in any case traditional at that time to include some extra motets at the end of a Requiem Mass. Beside the Versa est in luctum , the Sitivit anima mea and the Non mortui by Manual Cardoso (1566-1750) and the Sitivit anima mea by Pedro de Cristo (c.1540-1618) set by two Portuguese composers and present in this website have the same function. The text “Versa est in luctum” was not a direct part of the traditional Spanish liturgy but much more an extra-liturgical motet during the Obsequies of very important dignitaries of State or Church. De Padilla and the other composers mentioned above must have found special inspiration in it, especially for funeral purposes. Those composers did it in an excellent but different way of character, due in the period they lived and the skills they had. This splendid five-part motet by de Padilla starts with Altus, followed by Cantus 1, Cantus 2, Tenor and Bassus. This motet has a steady interesting contrapuntal flow and consists out of 46 bars. In “parce mihi Domine”, spare me Lord, from bar 30/3, Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla uses homophonic style to underline the used wording. A form of word-painting. De Padilla uses some accidentals, to express his feelings. This setting by Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla was found and published in the Pueblo Cathedral, Libro de Coro XV, Part 2, folios 145v-147r.
Author:Wim Goossens
Responde mihi
Period:Late Renaissance
Musical form:Motet à 4 vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin Officium Defunctorum
Text Lectio IV:
Responde mihi, quantas habeo iniquitates et peccata: scelera mea atque delicta ostende mihi. Cur faciem tuam abscondis, et arbitraris me inimicum tuum? Contra folium quod vento rapitur, ostendis potentiam tuam, et stipulam siccam persequeris. Scribis enim contra me amaritudines, et consumere me vis peccatis adolescentiae meae. Posuisti in nervo pedem meum, et observasti omnes semitas meas, et vestigia pedum meorum considerasti. Qui quasi putredo consumendus sum, et quasi vestimentum quod comeditur a tinea.

Translation: Answer thou me, how great iniquities, and sins I have: my wicked deeds, and my offences show thou me. Why hides thou thy face and thinks me thine enemy? Against the leaf that is violently taken with the wind, thou showiest thy might, and persecutes dry stubble. For thou writes bitterness against me, and wilt consume me with the sins of my youth. Thou hast put my foot in band, and hast observed all my paths, and hast considered the steps of my feet. Who as rottenness am to be consumed, and as a garment that is moth-eaten.
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Responde mihi is the text from the Lesson 4, Lectio IV from the Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum Responsory from Matins of the Dead set by de Padilla in a motet for four voices (SATB). In general there are two collected Lessons, Lectiones sacrae and Sacrae Lectiones composed by Lassus (1532-1594) in motet-form, two Motet-cycles each of which consists out of the nine Lectiones from the Book Job that appear in the Officium Defunctorum ad Matitutinum which still have been published in the old Liber Usualis, pages 1782 -1799. These nine Lectiones were full part of the Office for the Dead from the eleventh Century until the Second Vatican Council in 1965 were substantial revisions and alterations of the total Office in the Catholic Church have been made. This Office for the Dead more specific these Lectiones would be read Ad Matutinum in the morning prior to a Requiem Mass and the Burial. All nine Lessons in the Service were normally followed by a Responsorium. Lassus is as far as we know the first composer who set all nine Lectiones in one composition together. The music Padilla has set in service of expression of the text is for the greater part written in homophonic style. Of course there is in this case a lead in the Superior voice. The approach of the text is close to the manner de Morales (c.1500-1553) did in his settings. This setting by Padilla contains 68 bars. Padilla practises all over this setting fine dissonants. This motet is found in an old manuscript, Puebla Cathedral 3, copied in the late 17th century. That book contains settings for the Requiem and Matins. In that Book Padilla is present with one Lesson IV and with “Versa est in Luctum” and “Circumdederunt me”. Based on the contents of the Mexico Choir Book, Archivo de la Catedral, Ms 3 The Lesson IV – Responde Mihi - is sung in the Nocturn 2. Seen that Book of Mexico Cathedral it is interesting that the repertory for Matins of the Dead was very extensive. That Choirbook includes one Invitatory, four polyphonic settings each for Nocturn 1 and 2 and five settings for Nocturn 3. This setting by Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla was found and published in the Pueblo Cathedral, Libro de Coro XV, Part 2, folios 45v-47 and in the Pueblo Cathedral, Libro de Coro 3, folios 33v-35.
Author:Wim Goossens