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Johann Joseph Fux
1660 - 1741
Austria
Picture Picture
J.J. Fux
Johann Joseph Fux (1660 - 13/02/1741), an Austrian organist and composer, born in Hirtenfeld (St. Marein). Johann Joseph Fux (ca. 1660-1741) was an Austrian composer, music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era. Fux was born to a peasant family in Hirtenfeld in Styria. Relatively little is known about his early life, but likely he went to nearby Graz for music lessons. In 1680 he was accepted at the Jesuit university in Graz, where his musical talent became apparent. From 1685 until 1688 Fux served as organist at St. Moritz in Ingolstadt. His music in the first part of his career is influenced by the Italian Corelli (1653-1713). Around 1690 Fux lived in Vienna, and attracted the attention of Emperor Leopold I (1640-1705) with some masses he composed; the emperor was sufficiently impressed by the compositions. In 1698, Leopold appointed Fux as his court composer. Fux served Leopold I until his death, and two more Habsburg emperors after that: Joseph I (1678-1711) and Charles VI (1685-1740). He was famous as a composer throughout this period. Although his music until recently never was highly regarded. Nevertheless his mastery of counterpoint influenced countless composers through his treatise Gradus ad Parnassum (1725). The Baroque age in music in Austria ends with Fux. Fux was a prolific composer and Ludwig von Köchel (1800-1877), indeed Köchel-Verzeichnis (works by Mozert), categorised his total music. Fux died in 1741. Fux wrote a lot of Requiem-settings of which four has been lost. He wrote 58 Masses or part of it, 56 Vesper, Psalms, Magnificat, 21 Litanies, 11 Graduals, 13 Offertories, 21 Motets, 105 Hymns, 10 Oraties, 17 Operas, 80 partita and sonata con.
Author:Wim Goossens
Source:Grove's dictionary of music and musicians
Requiem
Period:Baroque
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
The Austrian composer Fux wrote the requiem masses K55 (1697) and K51/53 (1720) and at least ten more.
Source:http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/f/fux_j_j.shtml
Contributor:Tassos Dimitriadis
Missa pro defunctis K146
Period:Baroque
Musical form:fragment
Text/libretto:Latin mass
Duration:7'18
Label(s):CPO 999 850-2
Graduale in Missa pro defunctis (K146) for 4 Voices (SATB).
This Graduale in Missa pro defunctis K146 consists out of the following movements:
- Graduale: Requiem aeternam
- Tractus: Absolve Domine

This Graduale in Missa pro defunctis K146 is set by Johann Joseph Fux for SATB, con violetta, violine, org, (tromboni) a-trb, t-trb, b-trb. It’s curious Fux sets two plainchant movements ‘Requiem Aeternam’ and ‘Absolve Domine‘ out of the Missa pro defunctis together. Fux did the same in K147. The moreover during this whole score Fux quotes another well-known plainchant melody of the Introit the “Requiem aeternam” in long notes in the following order Soprano (Ms.5-43) - Altus (Ms. 46- 67) – Tenor (Ms. 69-104) – Soprano (Ms.107-127). The Graduale starts imitative by Tenor, followed by Basso, Alto and Soprano. Meanwhile Johann Fux weaves lines of counterpoint around the mentioned Cantus firmus. In the middle of this Gradual Basso sings the belonging plainchant verse unisono ‘In memoria aeterna, erit Justus’ (Ms. 44) followed by the other voices again in imitation but now the Cantus firmus is in the Altus. In Ms. 67 this Gradual will be closed in F-major. In Ms. 68 starts the Tractus ‘Absolve Domine’ not in the same key but B-major. The Cantus firmus is set by Fux in the Tenor. The other voices follow in imitation. In the middle of this Tractus Basso sings the belonging plainchant verse ‘Et gratia tua illis succurrente, mereantur evadere judicium ultionis’ (Ms. 105) followed by the other voices again in imitation but the Cantus firmus in the Soprano. This Tractus will be closed in F-major. This motet consists out of 128 measures. The text and translation of this Graduale and Tractus can be found at the beginning of this Website button Latin Text. This Gradual in Missa pro defunctis is found in an undated Manuscript [cover title:] Graduale | pro | Defunctis | Requiem aeternam dona eis cet. | a | 4 Voci | Violetta | 3 Tromboni | Organo e Violone | Manuscript copy: 1870 (1870c); 35 x 22 cm
Author:Wim Goossens
Requiem in C minor K56
Period:Baroque
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
This Requiem in c-minor K56, Missa pro defunctis consists out of the following movements:
- Introitus: Requiem aeternam
- Kyrie: Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie
- Offertorium: Domine Jesu Christe
- Sanctus Sanctus & Benedictus
- Agnus Dei: I, II and III
- Communio: Lux aeterna

This Requiem in c-minor K56, is set by Johann Joseph Fux for SSATB, 4 Violin, 2 Trombones (Sackbuts), Fag. and organo. This Requiem is found in Requiem | à | 5 Voci Conc:| 4 Viole Conc: | 2 Tromboni Conc:| Fagotto Conc:| Con | Organo. | Del Sig: Fux. | [later added:] sense Dies ira, Manuscript copy: 1750-1799 (18.2d); 32,5 x 21,5 cm.
Author:Wim Goossens
Graduale ex Missa pro defunctis K147
Period:Baroque
Musical form:motet cum orch.
Text/libretto:Latin mass
This Graduale ex Missa pro defunctis K 147 consists out of the following movements:
- Graduale: Requiem aeternam
- Tractus: Absolve Domine

This Graduale ex Missa pro defunctis K 147 is set by Johann Joseph Fux for SATB, con violetta, violine, org, (tromboni) a-trb, t-trb, b-trb. It’s curious Fux sets two plainchant movements ‘Requiem Aeternam’ and ‘Absolve Domine‘ out of the Missa pro defunctis together. He did the same in K 146. This writing by Fux is strictly free imitative counterpoint and in this case Fux didn’t use the belonging plainchant. This motet consists out of 129 measures. The text and translation of this Graduale and Tractus can be found at the beginning of this Website button Latin Text. This Graduale ex Missa pro defunctis is found in Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich 1895.
Author:Wim Goossens
Libera me, Domine de morte
Period:Baroque
Composed in:1695c
Musical form:Motet à 4 vocibus con Organ
Text/libretto:Latin from the Officium Defunctorum
Duration:4'43''
In memory of:CPO 999 850-2
The ”Libera me, Domine de morte” is in general a plainchant from the Exsequiarum Ordo (in Exsequiis) more specific a Responsorium sung during the final blessing of the coffin on its catafalque. This Libera me (there are four (4) plain-chant variations known) is an old Responsorium and sung in the part Absolutio super tulum and is published in the old Liber Usualis (edition 1936) pages 1767 – 1768. Following the text Johann Joseph Fux used the normal published text version as mentioned below. This large motet “Libera me, Domine de morte aeterna” is written by Fux in short polyphonic settings for among others four voices (SATB) con organo and sometimes three voices (SAT or ATB) again con organo. Fux uses modest imitative style in this “Libera me” closely resembles Palestrina’s in stile antico. In this case there is no pre-existing plainchant cantus firmus. In the score there is a figured continuo part available. Fux sets some expressive chromatic inflections in all parts. The Verse “Tremens factus” starts with three voices ( SAT) in Ms. 26 up to 38. The ‘Dies illa’ is set in a lower imitative texture for (ATB) in Ms. 39-50. The following “Dum veneris” is set again for SATB. The “Requiem aeternam” in time ₵ is set again for four voices SATB in homophonic style with consecutive chord change. The final ‘luceat eis’ is in 6/2 modus. The normally belonging threefold Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie eleison Is not set by Fux. Of course as we earlier mentioned this Respond will be in accordance with the Gregorian tradition/practise repeated form “Libera me Domine de morte aeterna in die illa tremenda” Ms. 1 -25 up to ‘Tremens factus’. According Gregorian practise the in exsequiis/the funeral starts after the Missa pro Defunctis. This setting contains 66 measures and is set in D-Hypo. This score is found in different files: Autograph manuscript:1695-1718 (ca.) [title page, f. 24r:] Libera me Domine. | à 4 voc. | Del Sigre Giuseppe Fux, | Maestro di Capella di S. M. C. dell'Impce Amalia| score: f. 24r-27v|Manuscript copy: 1800-1850 (ca.); Manuscript copy:1767 |(1767c) | ;
Author:Wim Goossens
Text:
R. Libera me, Domine, de morte aeterna in die illa tremenda
quando coeli movendi sunt et terra dum veneris judicare saeculum per ignem.
V. Tremens factus sum ego et timeo, dum discussion venerit atque venture ira:
quando coeli movendi sunt et terra.
V. Dies irae, dies illa, calamitatis et miseriae, dies magna et amara valde.
R. Dum veneris judicare saeculum per ignem.
V. Requiem aeternam dona eis Domine et lux perpetua luceat eis.
R. Libera me, Domine, de morte aeterna in die illa tremenda.
quando coeli movendi sunt et terra dum veneris judicare saeculum per ignem.

Translation:
R. Deliver me, O Lord, from eternal death, on that fearful day,
when the heavens and the earth are moved,
when you will come to judge the world through fire.
V. I am seized with fear and trembling, until the trial is at hand and the wrath to come:
when the heavens and earth shall be shaken.
V. That day, the day of wrath, calamity, and misery, that terrible,
and exceedingly bitter day.
R. When you will come to judge the world through fire.
V. Eternal rest give unto them, Lord and may over lasting light shine upon them.
R. Deliver me, Lord from eternal death, on that fearful day,
when the heavens and the earth are moved.
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Requiem in F major K55
Period:Baroque
Composed in:1697
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
In memory of:archduchess Eleonora Maria, wife of Emperor Charles Leopold of Lorraine
In comparison with the Emperor's requiem this requiem (K 55) pales in range and demand. A copy of the work kept in Berlin contains the note that it was composed for the funeral in 1697 of the archduchess Eleonora, the widowed Queen of Poland and Duchess of Lothringen. In contrast to the Emperor's requiem this work is not to be found in the Viennese Hofmusikkapelle and posterity is therefore lacking the cover of the music which could shed light on further performance dates. One thing is certain, that from the mid-eighteenth century, when the principles for the composition of church music gradually began to change, the requiem works of Fux were no longer heard. It was not until they attracted the interest of musical historians in the nineteenth century that they gained importance, not of course in their original liturgical function but within a restorative and historical context. In this context too Raphael George Kiesewetter, a music historiographer and music collector, owned the original manuscripts of both requiems (K55 and K51/53) and the journalist Friedrich Rochlitz included the "Offertorium" from the 'smaller' requiem (K55) for his Collection of excellent Pieces for voices (Mainz, ca. 1835).
Author:Thomas Hochradner
This Requiem in F-major K 55, Missa pro defunctis consists out of the following movements:
- Introitus: Requiem aeternam
- Kyrie: Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie
- Sequentia: Dies Irae
- Offertorium: Domine Jesu Christe
- Sanctus Sanctus & Benedictus
- Agnus Dei: I, II and III
- Communio: Lux aeterna

This Requiem in F-major K.55, is set by Johann Joseph Fux for SATB, Violin I, II, Viola, Trombones (Sackbuts) and organo. This Requiem is written for the funeral of ELeonora Grand Duchess consort of Lithuania, Queen of Poland (1653-1697) in 1697. This Requiem is found in Joa. Jos. Fux | MISSA | pro | Defunctis | a quatro voci | con Viole, Trombone ed Organo | Composta per le Funerali dell'Arciducchessa Eleonora Vedova Regina di Pologna e Ducchessa di Lorena, l'anno 1697. Manuscript copy: 1800-1899 (19.sc); 31 x 23,5 cm.
Author:Wim Goossens
Picture
archduchess Eleonora
Maria (dedicatee)
Kaiserrequiem K51/53
Period:Baroque
Composed in:1720
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
Duration:ca.42'
In memory of:Empress Eleonore Magdalena, third wife of Emperor Leopold I
Label(s):Arte Nova 74321-27777 | ARTE 74321 636512
RIC 368
DHN 88697959972
Sony 88697 303862-28
The so-called Emperor's requiem (K 51 - 53) was composed by the Emperor's court Kapellmeister Fux on the occasion of the funeral rites of the Emperor's widow (the widow of Emperor Leopold I) which took place on 5th March 1720 in Vienna: Eleonore Magdalena (06/01/1655 in Dusseldorf - 19/01/1720 in Vienna), Empress, third wife of Emperor Leopold I.
Fux employes in this requiem an instrumentation in the contemporary term "stylus mixtus"- a group of instruments which excludes trumpets and timpani and the ceremonial aura they bring; he adapts his compositional style to the solemn occasion by limiting the orchestral writing and excluding lengthy orchestral passages. From the remarks on the cover of the instrumental parts to this requiem (which are in the possession of the Viennes Hofmusikkapelle) it can be seen that the work was further heard on 28th april 1729 at the requiem mass for Leopold Joseph of Lotheringen, the father of the later Emperor Franz I, on 12th July 1736 for Prince Eugen of Savoyen (a sign of the especial esteem in which the Prince was held) and on 16th November 1740 for Emperor Karl VI. According to the tradition in those days it was possible to offer on less important occasions not a complete performance of a requiem but a compilation of individual movements from varied works. The Emperor's requiem was for instance further performed in full on All Saint's Day in 1731, 1735, 1737, 1739, but in 1736 only in part. The first two movements were played on 10th October 1741 by the court orchestra to commemorate the death of Emperor Karl VI. The final performance noted on the cover inexplicably also in part took place for reasons still unknown on 13th August 1743.
Author:Thomas Hochradner
This Requiem, Missa pro defunctis consists out of the following movements:
- Introitus: Requiem aeternam 6’47”
- Kyrie: Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie 3‘12“
- Sequentia: Dies Irae 15‘06“
- Offertorium: Domine Jesu Christe 5‘
- Sanctus Sanctus & Benedictus 3’32”
- Agnus Dei: I, II and III 1’54”
- Communio: Lux aeterna 4’59”

This Requiem in c-minor the so-called Kaiserrequiem K.51-53 is set by Johann Joseph Fux for SSATB, Violin I, II, Viola, Trombones(Sackbuts), Cornets and continuo. This Requiem is written for the funeral of Empress Leonora van Palts-Neuburg (1655-1720) in 1720. She was the widow of Leopold I (1640-1705) in his third marriage.
In general Fux wrote this Mass for the Dead in the form of the French 'grand motet'. There are five solo voices SSATB accompanied by strings VI,VII, Viola (with ritornelli), contrasting with a larger ensemble consisting of the ripieno voices SSATB and doubled with cornets, trombones (sackbuts) and bassoon. As normal in this musically style Solo and Ripieno groups regularly and often alternate even merge together. The solo voices play a prominent role in this score and of course the solo-voices merge as usual together in the tutti, the Ripieno forces. There is a great contrast in time-modus and key all over the score. There is a contrast between homophonic and polyphonic passages of course in underlinimg the used text. The solo and ripieno contrasts are essential in this Requiem and are used in function of the text. Highlights of this Requiem are the Introitus ‘Requiem aeternam’ (with striking dissonants) and from the Dies Irae we mention verse 3 ‘the Tuba mirum’ of course scored with Sackbuts in alternation with the Altus, verse 5 ‘Liber scriptus’ in imitative style, verse 14 ‘Ne perenni cremer igne’ in rhythmic style on the words and verse 16 ‘Confutatis maledictus’ in imitative style. As you can see the movement ‘Dies Irae’ is far the largest part of this Requiem, which is divided into a number of sections with different instrumental and vocal composition and alternation between homophonic and polyphonic elements. Fux sets with this Requiem very important music for an ensemble of voices and instruments divided in two choirs of musicians (Solo and ripieno) with a perfect balance between the solo groups and the ripieno resulting in a complete merging of singers and instrumentalists. This Requiem is set in high Baroque style. In literature this c-minor Requiem is regarded as one of the greatest settings of the Office of the Dead in the first half of the 18th century. This Requiem is found in Requiem cum Dies irae | à 5. Voci in conc. | 2 Violette | 2. Viole | 2 oboe | 2. Tromboni | con | Organo | Del Sig: Fuchs. Manuscript copy: 1726-1750 (18.2q); 29 x 22 cm [caption title:] Requiem di Gius. Fux 1720. | d. 5 März, score: f.15r-26r;
Author:Wim Goossens
Picture
Empress Eleonore
Magdalena (dedicatee)