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Andrea Rota
c.1553 - 1597
Italy
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A. Rota
Andrea Rota (ca.1553 - 06/1597), an Italian composer. He was born in Bologna and died in Bologna. He may have worked in Rome, but in 1583 he was appointed maestro di cappella at S Petronio, Bologna. In 1594 Rota was appointed a maestro di canto in Bologna. His second books of motets Motectorum, Liber secundus published in 1595 are settings for the coro spezzati style as well as his unpublished motets. His Motectorum, Liber primus was published in 1584. Furthermore Rota wrote Madrigals and his book Primo libro de madrigali was printed in Venice 1579. His second book was dedicated to Alfonso d’Este.
Author:Wim Goossens
Domine, secundum actum meum
Period:High Renaissance
Composed in:1584
Musical form:Motet à 6 vocibus aequalium
Text/libretto:Latin from a Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum
Domine, secundum actum meum is a plainchant from the Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum Ad Matutinum and as Respond set by Andrea Rota for six voices (CTTTBB). The Domine, secundum actum meum is an old Responsorium,/Respond defunctorum and still published in the old Liber Usualis page 1798 and is sung after Lectio VIII Ad Matutinem. This Respond is the 8th Reponsoirum in the Office of the Dead.
The Domine, secundum actum meum is written in a very modest imitative polyphonic way and it consists out of 73 bars. Rota uses a lots of sharps and flats to express his feelings towards the text. Tenor (TII) starts, followed by Altus (TI), Bassus secundus (BII), Cantus (CT), Quintus (TIII) and sextus (B I). In ‘nihil dignum’ (bar 22) Rota chooses for three voices (CT, TI and TII) to underline “nihil/nothing” in a symbolic way followed (in bar 28) by again three voices now the lower voices (TIII, BI and BII). In “ideo deprecor majestatem’ (bar 37) Rota starts with a full homophonic phrase the underline the importance of the words in this part of the Respond. The Phrase will be exactly repeated from bar 54 culminating in ‘iniquitatem mean’ ending in a full D-major. Rota only uses only the Respond in omitting the belonging Versicle. This motet is for the first time published in Motectorum liber primus a 5-8 voci, Caspari Bologna in 1584.
Author:Wim Goossens
Responsorium Text:

R. Domine, secundum actum meum noli me iudicare:
nihil dignum in consepctu tuo egi.
Ideo deprecor maiestatem tuam, ut tu,
Deus, deleas iniquitatem meam.

Translation:
R. Lord, judge me not according to my deeds:
for I have done nothing worthy in thy sight.
Therefore I entreat thy majesty, that thou,
O God, would blot out mine iniquity.
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Versa est in luctum
Period:High Renaissance
Composed in:1584
Musical form:motet à 5 vocibus inaequales
Text/libretto:Latin Officium Defunctorum
Versa est in Luctum is a plainchant from the Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum Responsory from Matins of the Dead set by Andrea Rota in a motet for five voices (CATTB). The Versa est in luctum is an old Responsorium and even used and set by for instance by Francisco de Peñalosa (c.1470-1528), Alonso Lobo (c.1535-1617), Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548-1611), Sebastián de Vivanco (c.1550-1622), Estêvão Lopes Morago (c.1575-1630), Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla (c.1590-1664), Juan Miquel Marqués (1600-1699) and José de Torres y Martinez Bravo (1665-1738). Those settings from “Versa est in luctum” have to be considered as an Iberian inheritance. Although out of the Iberian we saw Versa est in luctum settings by the Italian Alexandro Grandi (1586-1630), Andrea Rota (1553-1597), Anselmo di Facio (1590-1610) and by the Netherlandish Gerard Dericke ( 1540-1580), who worked in UK. There are about 138 Responsoria de Officium Defunctorum known and used during centuries in the Office of the Dead. They are all well ordered. The Versa est in Luctum is Respond nr 95. To this Repond belongs Versicle nr. 43 Cutis mea. The text is from the book of Job and has become in certain European regions a Respond in the Office of the Dead. This variation of the Respond is found with some introductions in two Offices of the Dead in Lyon and in Otto of Riedenburg’s Pontifical. And from there it is spread into Europe. The text Versa est in luctum was not a direct part of the traditional Spanish liturgy but much more an extra-liturgical motet during the Obsequies of very important dignitaries of State or Church. We think Andrea Rota must have found special inspiration in this motet, especially for funeral purposes. Rota uses here in accordance with the Iberian tradition the short text. The text of this motet used by Rota is known and are verses from the book Job XXX, 31, VII, 16 an XXX,
The text and music of this motet Versa est in luctum are penitential in feeling. Rota did not use the belonging Versicle and did not use the repetition of the last part of the Respond. He works in the short style of his Iberian colleagues. The not used text is placed by us between brackets see below. Andrea Rota starts this motet in a homophonic (CTTB) low approach from major to minor with dissonant in bar 3. In bar 7 Rota added the altus for the first time. Rota uses in this motet more flats and sharps to underline the text. Rota’s writing is more chordal and harmonically oriented. See as example “Parce mihi” from bar 23. As Italian he has to be more oriented to Rome. The result is a more understandable text. To underline that text “Parce mihi” once more Rota starts each part – except the Bassus - with a semitone. Altus, Quintus, and Tenor repeat that semitone once more in the next sentences. This motet consists out of 46 bars and starts and ends in A Phrygian. This setting by Rota is published in Motectorum liber primus 1584 Caspari Bologna.
Author:Wim Goossens
Text:
R. Versa est in luctum cithara mea et organum meum in vocem flentium.
Parce mihi Domine, quia nihil enim sunt dies mei.
[V. Cutis mea denigrata est super me et ossa mea aruerunt.]
[R. Parce mihi Domine, nihil enim sunt dies mei.]

Translation:
R. My harp is tuned for lamentation and my organ into the voice of those who weep.
Spare me, my Lord, since my days are nothing.
[V. My skin is black upon me, and my bones are burned with heat].
[R. Spare me, [my] Lord, since my days are nothing.]
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Domine, quando veneris
Period:High Renaissance
Composed in:1595
Musical form:Motet à 5 vocibus inaequales
Text/libretto:Latin from a Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum
Domine, quando veneris is a plainchant from the Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum Ad Matutinum and de text is set by Andrea Rota for five voices (CATQB). The Domine, quando veneris is an old Responsorium, and is still published in the old Liber Usualis ( ed.1936 page 1787) and is sung after Lectio III in the Office of the Dead.
This small motet (in total 53 bars) consisting out of the Respond text is written by Rota for five voices in imitative polyphonic style. Rota omitted the corresponding Versicle ‘Commissa mea’ . The not used text by Rota is placed by us between brackets. Rota starts with imitative polyphonic style with “Domine”, Altus starts followed by Quintus/Tenor, Cantus, Bassus and Tenor. Rota uses flats, sharps and semitones to express his feelings and writes in a flowing style. Besides that Rota uses some dissonant. Rota ends from g-minor up to D. This Respond is published in Motectorum liber secundus a 5-8 voci, Caspari Bologna 1595
Author:Wim Goossens
Text Domine quando veneris:
R. Domine quando veneris judicare terram,
ubi me abscondam a vultu irae tuae?
Quia peccavi nimis in vita mea.
[V. Commissa mea pavesco, et ante te erubesco:]
[dum veneris judicare noli me condemner.]
[R. Quia peccavi nimis in vita mea.]

Translation:
R. O Lord, when Thou shall come to judge the earth,
where shall I hide from the face of Thy wrath?
For I have sinned greatly in my life.
[V. I dread my judgement and I am ashamed before Thee.]
[When Thou shall come to judgement do not condemn me.]
[R. For I have sinned greatly in my life.]
Contributor:Wim Goossens