Lodovico Grossi da Viadana
1564 - 1627
Italia
Picture
L.G. da Viadana
Lodovico da Viadana (1564 - 02/05/1627), an Italian composer, born in Viadana. He was a pupil of Porta. One of the first composers, who applied the basso continuo.
Author:Theo Willemze
Source:Componistenlexicon
Missa defunctorum
Period:High Renaissance
Composed in:1598
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
This Missa defunctorum is for three voices and basso continuo (organ), written in 1598.
Source:The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians
Contributor:Tassos Dimitriadis
Officium defunctorum
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1600
Musical form:officium
Text/libretto:Latin
Officium defunctorum, opus 11, is for four voices, written in 1600.
Source:The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians
Contributor:Tassos Dimitriadis
Missa solemnis pro defunctis
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1604
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
Label(s):Stradivarius STR33430
Later in the 17th century numerous requiem settings, many in concertato style, were produced by composers including G.B. Bassani, G.A. Bernabei, Antonio Bertali (eight settings), Biber, Giovanni Cavaccio, Cavalli, Cazzati, Joan Cererols, G.P. Colonna, P.A. Fiocco (three settings), Santino Girelli, J.K. Heller, J.C. Kerll (two settings), A.V. Michna, Marcin Mielczewski, Alessandro Scarlatti, Johann Stadlmayer, Christoph Straus (two settings) and Viadana.
Author:Steven Chang-Lin Yu
Officium ac Missa defunctorum
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1604
Musical form:motet & mass
Text/libretto:Latin Officium Defunctorum
Duration:01.09’.35”
Label(s):STR33430SD
TC 562201
Officium ac Missa defunctorum, opus 15, is for five voices, written in 1604.
This might be the same requiem as Missa solemnis pro defunctis (1604), see above.
Source:The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians
Contributor:Tassos Dimitriadis
This Officium defunctorum ac Missa pro defunctis opus 15 is set by Viadana for five voices CATQB (Cantus, Altus, Tenor, Quintus, Bassus) and is published in 1604.
This Officium defunctorum ac Missa pro defunctis consists out of the following movements:
- Invitatorium : Regen cui omnia vivunt et Psalmus 94 Venite Adoremus Domino 9’.35”
- In primo Nocturno
- Antiphon Dirige, Domine Deus meus Psalmus 5 Verba mea 7’.55”
- Antiphon Convertere Domine - Psalmus 6 Domine, ne in furore 6’. 12”
- Antiphon Confitebuntur - Psalmus 7 Domine Deus 8’.22”
Missa pro defunctis - Introitus Requiem aeternam 4’.15”
- Kyrië Kyrië, Christe, Kyrië 2’.52”
Sequentia Dies Irae 12’.16”
Offertorium Domine Jesu Christe 5’.18”
Sanctus Sanctus & Benedictus 1’. 53”
Agnus Dei Agnus Dei I, II, III 1‘.48“
Communio Lux aeterna 2’.12”
Absolutio super Tulum
Responsorium Libera Me, Domine de morte 7’.03”
Ad benedictionem Requiem aeternam 0’.34”

This Officium defunctorum is set by Lodovico da Viadana for five voices Cantus, Altus, Tenor, Quintus and Bassus and consists in this case out of the part Ad Matutinum (Matins) the Invitatorium (invitation) and three psalms out of the Primo Nocturno (first Nocturn). Invitatorium ‘Regem Cui omnia vivunt et psalmus 94 Venite Exultemus’ is set by Viadana in alternatim practice (in alternate sections). The belonging plainchant is published in the Liber Usualis (edition 1936, pages 1779-1781). At this Officium the Antiphon ‘Regem cui ‘….. plainchant starts unisono, followed by an instrumental choir consisting out of Cornetto, Trombone, Violino, Violono, Oganano e Spinetta as an introduction of the vocal choir. The first time the Antiphon ‘Regem cui’ is set in a homophonic way (CATQB) , after that the Antiphon or a ‘Venite Domnus’ will be repeated only in plainchant during the whole performance of psalm 94. The psalm-parts are set for the two choirs instrumental & vocal together. The musically interpretation by Viadana differs per text. They are extremely lively, original with strong contracts in following the text. The Requiem aeternam is fully set for the two choirs (instrumental and vocal). The Antiphon ‘Regem cui’ or the ‘Venite Adoremus’ will be sung in plainchant as prescribed in the Liber Usualis. At the closing the Antiphon Regem cui, will be repeated in plainchant.
Antiphon I Dirige Domine Deus meus is followed by Psalm 5. The odd numbers of the 17 verses are set in unison plainchant according to the Liber Usualis (edition 1936 p. 1782). The straight numbers are set in a rich polyphonic setting with striking contrasts and lively elements due to the text. Viadana is aware of the text and with his skills he paints musically the words. The psalm parts are set for two choirs instrumental and vocal together. At the end Viadana has set a fine ‘Requiem aeternam dona eis Domine’. After that the Antiphon Dirige Domine is repeated in plainchant.
Antiphon II Convertere Domine, et eripe animam meam is followed by Psalm 6. The odd numbers of the 12 verses are set in unison plainchant according to the Liber Usualis (edition 1936 p. 1783). The straight numbers are set in a rich polyphonic setting with striking contrasts and lively elements due to the text. Viadana is by using word-painting aware of the text. The psalm parts are set for two choirs instrumental and vocal together. At the end Viadana has set in this case a very open ’Et lux perpetua, luceat eis’ with a very demanding surprising closing with the words ‘Convertere Domine’ for the two choirs (Instrumental and vocal). After that the Antiphon Convertere Domine is again fully repeated in plainchant. Antiphon III Confitebuntur tibi populi followed by Psalm 7. The plainchant choirs starts with a very special Antiphon ‘Confitebuntur tibi populi’ which is at this time not anymore applicable in the Office of the Dead. Nowadays in the Gregorian rite is sung the Antiphon ‘Nequando rapiat ut leo animam meam, dum non est qui redimat, neque qui salvum faciat’, (See Liber Usualis edition 1936 p. 1784). Viadana sets this last psalm 7 in a very introvert way. He omitted in the instrumental choir all wind instruments. The Violone and the Theorbo in this setting are the instrumental choir. The odd numbers of the 20 verses are set in unison plainchant according to the Liber Usualis (edition 1936 p. 1784). The straight numbers are set in a more introvert polyphonic setting even with some a cappella phrases and as mentioned with a very small instrumental choir. The ‘Et lux perpetua luceat eis’ is set by Viadana a cappella. The Antiphon Confitebuntur will be repeated. At the end of the Renaissance you see in this part of the Officium Baroque elements in it. Sound and Rhythm are in a special interaction with the text. And there is an interaction between the serene Plainchant and the enormous variations of the Polyphonic phrases. Those Polyphonic settings all over these four psalms will amaze. It is highly recommended to execute all the plainchant by a small group (4 or 5) of specialised singers! That use will give even more contrasts which Viadana seems to look after.
In these four movements Viadana shows how to interpret the new figured bass, though it is clear that many performers had by this time already learned the new method, at least in the most progressive musical centres in Italy. In fact we see and hear the start of the Baroque area. After these four Antiphons and psalms follows the Missa pro defunctis. This mass is set by Viadana four five voices (CATQB). Added to the score is a consortium of plainchant, besides a vocal and an instrumental choir consisting out of Violine, Violone, Cornetto, Trombone, Theorbo, Organo and Organo & Spinetta. Introitus Requiem aeternam. This movement starts with a short plainchant ‘Requiem’. All voices are doubled by Violine, Violone and basso continuo with theorbo. As from Ms 12-13 the wind-chorus Cornetto and Trombone Tenor joined the vocal chorus. Viadana uses in all parts – excluded Bassus - ascending and descending eighths. The ‘Te decet hymnus deus in Sion’ is again plainchant and the vocal choir starts again with the continuo and violins. As from Ms 27 the wind-chorus joins in ‘Exaudi orationem meam’ with long notes (brevis) in Altus. That wind-chorus is very moving and amazing too and this addition gives a special Polychoral effect. This movement has 37 Measures. Kyrie.
The first Kyrie starts with continuo and violone in a polyphonic way as follows: Altus, Tenor I, Cantus, Bassus and Quintus. Again Vidana sets a lot of eighth notes in all parts with baroque texture. The Bassus has like the Tenor more long notes (brevis). The Christe has long notes in Quintus and Bassus with a lively part in Cantus. The Christe ends in a homophonic way (Ms 27-28). The last Kyrie is ornamented with the wind-chorus, starting with Tenor I, Cantus, Altus, Quintus and Bassus. In this Kyrie the plainchant is quoted in Tenor and ‘supported’ by a Trombone Tenor. This movement has 45 Measures and is set in F. The Gradual and Tractus are not set by Viadana. Sequentia Dies irae. The Sequentia Dies Irae starts with an instrumental introduction by full instrumental chorus. The odd numbers are set by Viadana in a splendid but different way for different parts. The straight numbers are the normal plainchant verses of the Sequentia sung unisono with a separate (4/5 voices) vocal choir as we already mentioned before. The Sequentia is set in D-Dorian. The first verse ‘Dies Irae’ is set in a homophonic way CATQB with full instrumental chorus and ornamented parts in Cantus and Tenor. The third verse is more ornamented with full instrumental choir. See the striking d-minor and Bb-moll chord in Ms 16 on ‘Tuba’ and later in Ms 25 in ‘ante’. The fifth verse ‘Liber scriptus’ is more mildly set in a polyphonic way with the instrumental chorus, Cantus starts, followed by Altus, Tenor I, Bassus and Quintus. The seventh verse ‘Quid sum’ starts homophonic with some syncope’s (Ms 54) ornamented in all parts. The ninth verse ‘Recordare’ starts a cappella. As from measure 79 the instrumental chorus joins the vocal chorus in a nearly homophonic way. The eleventh verse ’Juste judex’ is very imposing and is set in ‘portio tripla’ (3/1) with full instrumental and vocal choir. Contrary to that the thirteenth verse ‘Qui Mariam’ is set in an introvert polyphonic way a cappella, for the three highest parts CAT. In the fifteenth verse ‘Inter oves’ is set for CATQB with only continuo and Violone, senza wind-chorus. There is more moving in all the parts of course with homophonic solutions. In the seventeenth verse ‘Oro supplex’ Viadana quotes in Bassus with long notes the plainchant ornamented by the other four parts. Only Continuo, Violone and Theorbo are the instrumental chorus, see the two closing chords. In the nineteenth verse ‘Judicandus’ each part starts with a quotation of three notes plainchant (a-c-d by CT), (a-c#!-d by Q) and a fifth lower (d-f-g by AB). In an imitative way Cantus starts, followed by Altus, Tenor, Bassus and Quintus. As from Ms 171 the four lower parts (ATQB) are homophonic larded from the beginning of this verse by Cantus with an ending in D on ‘Deum’. The ‘Pie Jesu’ is plainchant followed by the closing ‘Dona eis requiem, Amen’ in D-Dorian. This closing is set homophonic for full Chorus CATQB with a mild instrumental chorus (Continuo, Theorbo, Violone) senza wind-instruments. This total movement consists out of 187 measures.
Offertorium. It is remarkable Viadana set in all odd verses another polyphonic phrases and not what some other Renaissance colleagues for instance Giulio Belli (1560-1621) did in repeating some odd verses through the whole ‘Dies Irae’. The Offertorium ‘Domine Jesu Christe’ is set by Viadana for several variations of the plainchant chorus and on the other hand the instrumental and vocal chorus. This movement is written in a more lively style. Imposing word-painting is set by Viadana in the part ( Ms 27-31)‘ne absorbeat eas tartarus’, lest hell engulf them, or Let the abyss not devour them (with ‘portio tripla’ (3/1) tempo. This Offertorium is set in G-Dorian and consists out of 96 measures.
The Sanctus & Benedictus are set in a more homophonic style. The Quintus sings the plainchant and in the first four measures in long notes. The Cantus starts with ornamentation in the first four measures and joins in an a cappella homophonic phrase (Ms 6-9) CATQB. The full instrumental chorus joins and starts from Ms 10 in “pleni sunt caeli’. The ‘Gloria tua’ Ms 13 is again a cappella CATQB. The ‘Osanna’ Ms 16 is homophonic and the full instrumental chorus joins again. The Tenor starts with the Benedictus Ms 20. Full instrumental and vocal chorus follow (Ms 21-22). An a cappella phrase CATQB is set. As from ‘ín nomine’ Ms23, the continuo and Theorbo close the ‘Domine’ and ‘Osanna’ together with the vocal chorus with a crescendo. These two movements consists in total out of 30 measures. In those little movements you see and hear how surprisingly craftsman Viadana sets his music.
Agnus Dei.
The threefold Agnus Dei is set in a homophonic way. Quintus (twice in Agnus I and III) and Tenor start with the belonging plainchant. In the first Agnus only continuo, theorbo and violone are the instrumental chorus. The wind-instruments will follow in the second Agnus as from Ms 11 up to Ms 14/1. As from this part Ms 14/3 the Vocal chorus and continuo, theorbo and violone are finishing this and the third Agnus Dei. Agnus Dei I and III are set in G-Mixolydian and Agnus Dei II in D-Dorian. This Agnus Dei consists out of 26 measures.
Lux aeterna.
The Lux aeterna closes in accordance Gregorian Service-practise the last part of the Mass of the Dead. Continuo, theorbo and violone accompany the Vocal chorus CATQB. The belonging plainchant is sung by Tenor and Quintus. As from Ms 23 ‘cum sanctis’ the wind-section joins the vocal chorus up to the end. This movement consists out of 31 measures and is set in G-Mixolydian. After that starts the Absolutio super tulum, the last part of the funeral with the responsorium Libera me Domine de morte aeterna and a short closing Requiem aeternam (Liber Usualis edition 1936 page 1767-1768). They both are not set by Viadana but the plainchant is used.
This Officium defunctorum is extremely lively set by Viadana in a polyphonic way larded with the belonging plainchant. We described as much as possible a lot of interaction between sound (Plainchant chorus, Vocal and Instrumental chorus), rhythm and text. Viadana uses very often syncope’s and changing of tempi. Viadana lived between the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque. That’s what we found in this Officium too. The text is important for Viadana but nevertheless Viadana was looking for a mix between the large vertical polyphonic elements and the unison Gregorian horizontal elements. In the sense of Viadana and the life-time of Viadana in which he lived music must move, certainly amaze as well to the contrary retires into prayers. This large work is published in Officum ac Missa Defunctorum quinque vocibus decantandum A Ludovico Viadana nunc primum in lucem editum in OPERA XV, Venetiis, Apud Jacobum Vincentium MDCIIII.
Author:Wim Goossens
Invitatorium
Regem Cui omia Vivunt and Venite exultemus Domino
Inv. I Regem, cui omnia vivunt, Venite adoremus.

Venite exultemus Domino, iubilemus Deo salutari nostro:
praeoccupemus faciem eius in confessione:
et in psalmis iubilemus ei.
Regem, cui omnia vivunt, Venite adoremus.
Quoniam Deus magnus Dominus, et Rex magnus super omnes deos:
quoniam non repellet Dominus plebem suam, quia in manu eius sunt omnes fines terrae:
et altitudines montium ipse conspicit.
Venite adoremus.
Quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud:
et aridam fundaverunt manus eius: venite adoremus, et procidamus ante Deum:
ploremus coram Domino, qui fecit nos:
quia ipse est Dominus Deus noster:nos autem populus eius, et oves pascuae eius.
Regem, cui omnia vivunt, Venite adoremus.
Hodie si vocem eius audieritis, nolite obdurare corda vestra, sicut in exacerbatione secundum diem tentationis in deserto:
ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt, et viderunt opera mea.
Venite adoremus.
Quadraginta annis proximus fui generationi huic:
et dixi, semper hi errant corde:
ipsi vero non cognoverunt vias meas: quibus iuravi in ira mea, si introibunt in requiem meam.
Regem, cui omnia vivunt, Venite Adoremus.
Requiem aeternam dona eis Domine:
et lux perpetua luceat eis.
Venite adoremus.
Regem, cui omnia vivunt, Venite adoremus.

Dirige Domine and Verba mea

Ant. I Dirige Domine deus meus in conspectu tuo viam meam.

1. Vérba méa áuribus pércipe Dómine,intéllige cla remum. Flexa:eórum
2. Inténde vóci oratiónis méae,rex méus et Déus méus.
3. Quóniamad té orábo: Dómine mane exáudies vócem méam.
4. Mane astábo tibi et vidébo: quóniam non Déus vólens iniquitátem tú es.
5. Neque habitábit juxta té malígnus: neque permanébunt injústi ante óculos túos.
6. Odísti ómnes qui operántur iniquitátem: pérdes ómnes qui loquúntur mendácium.
7. Virum sánguinum et dolósum abominábitur Dóminus: égo autem in multitúdine misericórdie túae.
8. Introíbo in dómum túam: adorábo ad témplum sánctum túum in timóre túo.
9. Dómine, déduc me in justítia túa: propter inimícos méos dírige in conspectu túo víam méam.
10. Quóniam non est in óre eórum véritas: cor eórum vánum est.
11. Sepúlcrum pátens est gúttur eórum, línguis súis dolóse agébant: júdica íllos, Déus.
12. Décidant a cogitatiónibus súis, secúndum multitídinem impietátum eórum expélle éos: quóniam irritavérunt te Dómine.
13. Et laeténtur ómnes qui spérant in te: in aetérnum exsultábunt, et habitábis in éis.
14. Et gloriabúntur in te ómnes qui díligunt nómen túum,quóniam tu benedíces jústo.
15. Dómine, ut scúto bónae voluntátis túae,coronásti nos.
16. Réquiem aetérnam dóna éis Dómine.
17. Et lux propétua lúceat éis.
Ant. Dirige Domine, Deus meus in conspectu tuo viam meam.

Convertere, Domine and Domine ne in Furore

Ant. II Convertere domine et eripe animam meam quoniam non est in morte qui memor sit tui.

1. Domine, ne in furore tuo arguas me, neque in ira tua corripias me.
2. Miserere mei, Domine, quoniam infirmus sum; sana me, Domine, quoniam conturbata sunt ossa mea.
3. Et anima mea turbata est valde; sed tu, Domine, usquequo?
4. Convertere, Domine, et eripe animam meam; salvum me fac propter misericordiam tuam.
5. Quoniam non est in morte qui memor sit tui; in inferno autem quis confitebitur tibi?
6. Laboravi in gemitu meo; lavabo per singulas noctes lectum meum: lacrimis meis stratum meum rigabo.
7. Turbatus est a furore oculus meus; inveteravi inter omnes inimicos meos.
8. Discedite a me omnes qui operamini iniquitatem, quoniam exaudivit Dominus vocem fletus mei.
9. Exaudivit Dominus deprecationem meam; Dominus orationem meam suscepit.
10. Erubescant, et conturbentur vehementer, omnes inimici mei; convertantur, et erubescant valde velociter.
11. Requiem aeternam: dona eis Domine.
12. Et lux perpétua lúceat éis. Converte Domine.
Ant. Convertere domine et eripe animam meam quoniam non est in morte qui memor sit tui.

Translation.
1. O Lord, rebuke me not in thine indignation: neither chasten me in thy displeasure.
2. Have mercy upon me, O Lord, for I am weak: O Lord, heal me, for my bones are vexed.
3. My soul also is sore troubled: but, Lord, how long wilt thou punish me?
4. Turn thee, O Lord, and deliver my soul: O save me for thy mercy's sake. 5. For in death no man remembereth thee: and who will give thee thanks in the pit?
6. I am weary of my groaning; every night wash I my bed: and water my couch with my tears.
7. My beauty is gone for very trouble: and worn away because of all mine enemies.
8. Away from me, all ye that work vanity: for the Lord hath heard the voice of my weeping.
9. The Lord hath heard my petition: the Lord will receive my prayer.
10. All mine enemies shall be confounded, and sore vexed: they shall be turned back, and put to shame suddenly.
11. Rest eternal grant unto them, O Lord:
12. And let light perpetual shine upon them

Confitebuntur and Parce mihi Domine

Ant. III Confitebuntur tibi populi Deus in aeternum

1. Domine Deus meus, in te speravi; salvum me fac ex omnibus persequentibus me, et libera me:
2. Nequando rapiat ut leo animam meam, dum non est qui redimat, neque qui salvum faciat.
3. Domine Deus meus, si feci istud, si est iniquitas in manibus meis,
4. Si reddidi retribuentibus mihi mala, decidam merito ab inimicis meis inanis.
5. Persequatur inimicus animam meam, et comprehendat; et conculcet in terra vitam meam, et gloriam meam in pulverem deducat. [diapsalma]
6. Exsurge, Domine, in ira tua, et exaltare in finibus inimicorum meorum:
7. Et exsurge, Domine Deus meus, in praecepto quod mandasti, et synagoga populorum circumdabit te:
8. Et propter hanc in altum regredere: Dominus iudicat populos.
9. Judica me,Domine, secundum iustitiam meam, et secundum innocentiam meam super me.
10. Consummetur nequitia peccatorum et diriges iustum, scrutans corda et renes, Deus.
11. Iustum adiutorium meum a Domino, qui salvos facit rectos corde.
12. Deus iudex iustus, fortis, et patiens; numquid irascitur per singulos dies?
13. Nisi conversi fueritis, gladium suum vibrabit; arcum suum tetendit, et paravit illum.
14. Et in eo paravit vasa mortis, sagittas suas ardentibus effecit.
15. Ecce parturiit iniustitiam; concepit dolorem, et peperit iniquitatem.
16. Lacum aperuit, et effodit eum; et incidit in foveam quam fecit.
17. Convertetur dolor eius in caput eius, et in verticem ipsius iniquitas eius descendet.
18. Confitebor Domino secundum iustitiam eius, et psallam nomini Domini altissimi.
19. Requiem aeternam dona eis Domine
20. Et lux perpetua luceat eis.

Ant. Confitebuntur tibi populi Deus in aeternum

Translation.
1. O Lord my God, in thee have I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me.
2. Lest at any time he seize upon my soul like a lion, while there is no one to redeem me, nor to save.
3. O Lord my God, if I have done this thing, if there be iniquity in my hands:
4. If I have rendered to them that repaid me evils, let me deservedly fall empty before my enemies.
5. Let the enemy pursue my soul, and take it, and tread down my life on the earth, and bring down my glory to the dust.
6. Rise up, O Lord, in thy anger: and be thou exalted in the borders of my enemies.
7. And arise, O Lord my God, in the precept which thou hast commanded:
8. And a congregation of people shall surround thee. And for their sakes return thou on high.
9. The Lord judgeth the people. Judge me, O Lord, according to my justice, and according to my innocence in me.
10. The wickedness of sinners shall be brought to nought: and thou shalt direct the just: the searcher of hearts and reins is God.
11. Just is my help from the Lord: who saveth the upright of heart.
12. God is a just judge, strong and patient: is he angry every day?
13. Except you will be converted, he will brandish his sword: he hath bent his bow and made it ready.
14. And in it he hath prepared the instruments of death, he hath made ready his arrows for them that burn.
15. Behold he hath been in labour with injustice; he hath conceived sorrow, and brought forth iniquity.
16. He hath opened a pit and dug it; and he is fallen into the hole he made.
17. His sorrow shall be turned on his own head: and his iniquity shall comedown upon his crown.
18. I will give glory to the Lord according to his justice: and will sing to the NAME of the Lord the most high.
19.Rest eternal grant unto them, O Lord:
20. And let light perpetual shine upon them

Libera me Domine de morte aeterna

R. Libera me, Domine, de morte æterna, in die illa tremenda
Quando cœli movendi sunt et terra
Dum veneris iudicare saeculum per ignem.
V.Tremens factus sum ego, et timeo, dum discussio venerit, atque ventura ira.
Quando cœli movendi sunt et terra
V.Dies illa, dies iræ, calamitatis et miseriæ, dies magna et amara valde.
Dum veneris iudicare saeculum per ignem.
V.Requiem æternam dona eis, Domine: et lux perpetua luceat eis.

Translation.
R. Deliver me, O Lord, from death eternal
On that fearful day, on that day
When the heavens shall be moved
When the heavens and the earth shall be moved
When thou shalt come to judge the world by fire
V. Tremble, I am made to tremble
And I fear, till the judgment be upon us
And the coming wrath
V. That day, day of wrath
Calamity and misery
That day, day of great
And exceeding bitterness
V. Rest eternal grant unto them, O Lord:
And let light perpetual shine upon them.
Contributor:Wim Goossens