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Duarte Lôbo
c.1565 - 1646
Portugal
Picture
D. Lôbo
Duarte Lôbo -Latin: Eduardus Lupus- (c.1565 - 24/09/1646), a Portuguese composer, born in Alcaçovas. He studied at Evora under Manuel Mendes.
Source:Grove's dictionary of music and musicians
Duarte Lôbo (whose name was Latinised as Eduardus Lupus and should not be confused with that of his Spanish near-contemporary Alonso Lobo) was born about 1565 and died in 1646 in Lisbon. Like Magalhães (c.1571-1652), Cardoso (c.1566-1650) and a number of other leading Portuguese musicians of the period, Lôbo studied at Évora Cathedral under Manuel Mendes (c.1547-1605). It is possible that it was Mendes who introduced them all to the Victoria Requiem. Lôbo later became Mestre de capela at Évora before moving to Lisbon where he served in the same capacity at the Hospital Real and, by 1594, at the Cathedral. He kept the latter post for over forty years, much honoured by the Royal Court, and became the most esteemed and widely performed Portuguese composer of his time.
Officium defuntorum
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1603
Musical form:officium
Text/libretto:daily prayers, psalms, hymns, lectures, etc.
Early in the 17th century the Renaissance polyphonic style, in various modified forms, served for several decades as a principal medium for requiem composition. A fine example, in Palestrinian style, is G.F. Anerio's setting (published in 1614, and reprinted three times up to 1677), the introit of which reveals an elegant use of chant paraphrase. Similar in approach, but with more archaic cantus firmus treatment, are the expressive settings of two of Victoria's successors, Duarte Lobo (Officium defunctorum, 1603) and J.P. Pujol (Requiem for four voices, before 1626). An important innovation, evident in a number of works, is the inclusion of an organ continuo part (with figured or unfigured bass), which allowed greater variations in texture and dynamics.
Author:Steven Chang-Lin Yu
Missa pro defunctis
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1621
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
Duration:ca.22'
Label(s):Choral Recordings 1480022
Naxos 8.550682
This requiem skilfully retains the polyphonic style of Palestrina alongside the more modern dissonances, setting the sombre text almost in the style of his Spanish counterpart Victoria. Seven voices weave a contrapuntal web around the plainchant - itself often a paraphrase of the original chant - and reduced combinations, thereby creating a unique style out of seemingly anachronistic components.
Source:booklet of cd Naxos 8.550682
This Missa pro defunctis is for 8 mixed voices (SSAATTBB).
This Missa pro defunctis a 8 vocibus contains:
- Introitus: Requiem aeternam
- Kyrie
- Graduale: Requiem aeternam
- Offertorium: Domine Jesu Christe.
- Sanctus
- Benedictus
- Agnus Dei I, II, III
- Communio: Lux aeterna
This Missa pro defunctis is published in the Liber missarum III, V,VI, et VIII vocibus Antverpiae,/ ex officina Plantiniana/ Balthasaris Moreti./ MDC.XXI. so printed by the famous Plantin Press in Antwerp in 1621.
This Missa pro defunctis written for eight voices CCAATTBB is originally printed as for two choirs Cantus 1, Altus 1, Tenor 1, Bassus 1 and Cantus 2, Altus 2, Tenor 2, Bassus 2, although not designated as such by Duarte Lôbo. He had chosen for one eight-part counterpoint. Most of the Requiem Masses written in the 16th and 17th Century are severe and austere compositions due to sombre texts but all written by distinguished composers using their full skills.
This Missa pro defunctis is mastering due to the use of eight voices but written rather plainly - see for instance the exceptional start of the Sanctus with two full b flat chords - and given in all the last movements longer notes than usual compared to other polyphone works. Only the movement in the Graduale "In memoria aeterna erit iustus; ab auditione mala: In eternal memory equitability will be, for angry tidings" is small written for three voices SAT. But the following last part of the sentence "non temibit!: he will not fear!" is like a statement of Lôbo written for all impressing eight voices. As we saw in other Requiem settings The Graduale, Offertorium and Lux aeterna are set in contrapuntal style contrary to the other more modest counterpoint but impressing mass movements.
Author:Wim Goossens
Audivi vocem de caelo
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1621
Musical form:Motet a 6 vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin Officium Defunctorum
Duration:3'07''
Label(s):CDH 55138
Naxos 8.553310
Coro 16032
Hyperion 66218; Guild 6296; Collins14072
This motet Audivi vocem de caelo is a very short Versicle/verse and response used during the office of the Dead, and still published in the Liber Usualis pages 1775 and 1804. This motet is written by Duarto Lôbo for six voices CCTTTB. This Audivi vocem de caelo consists out of 45 bars. It is set up in a classical polyphonic style. Lôbo uses some fine and interesting dissonant. The motet starts with Cantus I followed by Tenor II, Tenor III, Bassus, Cantus II and Tenor I. “Dicentem mihi” (from bar 15/4) is repeated five times by several different homophone parts. And what did that voice from Heaven saying to me? Interesting is the real modest answer in the second phrase “Beati mortui” which starts in the solo Cantus I (bar23/2) followed by pregnant homophonic answers (bar 25/4) of the other lower voices. In fact a musical answer on the question in the Versicle by Lôbo! The motets ends with a modest conflicting a (CI) to b (CII,TI) but immediate ending in E. This marvellous piece is even today very often performed.
Be aware there are other motets Audivi vocem de caelo composed in the Renaissance period for instance by de Manchicourt, Sheppard, Vecchi, Tallis, Tavener, Byrd and Lalleman. Check the text carefully whether it is the same Versicle/Verse or Antiphon out of the Office of the Dead! This Audivi vocem de caelo is published in Liber missarum of 1621and edited by Baltasar Moretus and by Plantin Antwerp preserved in the Bibliotheca Nacional Lisbon in Liber missarum III, V,VI, et VIII vocibus Antverpiae,/ ex officina Plantiniana/ Balthasaris Moreti./ MDC.XXI. Thus printed by Plantin Press in Antwerp in 1621. A huge lot of manuscript-copies from this Book did survive.
Author:Wim Goossens
Text of this Versicle:
V. Audivi vocem de caelo, dicentem mihi.
R. Baeti mortui qui in Domino moriuntur.

Translation of the Verse:
V. I heard a voice from heaven, saying to me:
R. Blessed are the Dead who die in the Lord.
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Missa pro defunctis
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1639
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
Duration:40'23''
Label(s):GIM 454 925
GIM 205
GIM 028
This Missa pro defunctis a 6 vocibus contains:
- Introitus: Requiem aeternam
- Kyrie
- Graduale: Requiem aeternam
- Offertorium: Domine Jesu Christe
- Sanctus Y Benedictus
- Agnus Dei I, II, III
- Communio: Lux Aeterna
- Responsorium Pro Defunctis: Memento mei
This Missa pro defunctis is written for six voices CAATTB. The Missa pro defunctis is published in the Liber missarum III, V, VI et VIII vocibus Antverpiae,/ ex officina Plantiniana/ Balthasaris Moreti./ MDC.XXXIXI. so printed by the famous Plantin Press in Antwerp in 1639. This six-voice Requiem by Lôbo is a later work – published in 1639 as opposed to the 1621 of the eight-voice Requiem – but Lôbo continues the sonorous and contrapuntal idiom of his earlier years, see too the eight-voice Missa pro defunctis. Lôbo writes the chant in the single Cantus part, instead of the more usual Tenor part. The final Responsory "Memento Mei" is reduced to four voices CATB.
Author:Wim Goossens