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Sebastián de Vivanco
c.1551 - 1622
Spain
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S. de Vivanco
Sebastián de Vivanco (ca.1551 - 26/10/1622), a Spanish composer; born in Avila, Spain, died in Salamanca, Spain. The greatest part of his biography is still unknown for us, although he is one of the greatest figures of the Hispanic musical world at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th Century. He was chapel master of the Lleida Cathedral, which he left in 1576 for a similar position at the Avila Cathedral, and finally to the Cathedral of Salamanca, where Vivanco remained until his death in 1622. Besides, in this last city he was head of the music department of its prestigious University. An important number of masses and lamentations, a book of magnificats (1607), and another of motets (1610) are conserved. His style is fully inside the Spanish Renaissance tradition.
Source:http://classicalmus.hispeed.com/paco/vivanco.html
Officium defunctorum
Period:Late Renaissance
Musical form:motet
Text/libretto:Latin
In the same source is found an indication of a Officium defunctorum called ofici de difuntos by Sebastián de Vivanco. We have no further details but we mention the source in which this Officium defunctorum is mentioned. This Officium defunctorum is preserved in manuscripts in the Guadalupe Monastery in Estremadura, Ms2, Real Monasterio de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, GU 2, one of two Choir-books copied at the beginning of the 17th century; Guadalupe, Real Monestir de Santa María, Arxiu de Música, MS s.s. (2).
Author:Wim Goossens
In manus tuas, Domine
Period:Late Renaissance
Musical form:Motet à 4 vocibus
Text/libretto:Job 10:8-12
Duration:3'16''
Label(s):GCD921405
Text:
In manus tuas Domine commendo spiritum meum.

Translation:
Into Thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit.
Contributor:Wim Goossens
“In manus tuas, Domine” is a very short plainchant Repond out of the Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum. On the other hand an “In manus tuas, Domine” is sung too ad the end of the compline. “In manus tuas” is a beautiful Repond from the Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum. The In manus tuas, Domine is an old Responsorium. There are about 138 Responsoria de Officium Defunctorum known and used during centuries in the Office of the Dead and spread all over Europe. Not this one. They are all well ordered. In manus tuas, Domine is Respond nr. 34. But as a Respond this “In manus tuas” was in use in the very isolated Manuale Ambrosianum in Milano where this Respond is sung in the Agenda mortuorum. Nevertheless “In manus tuas Domine” could be known by De Vivanco, even as a late evening office of Compline chant due to the fact the “In manus tuas Domine” as a Respond was not widely spread. We concluded De Vivanco uses the short text found in the Respond, see the below formulated motivation. De Vivanco sets this chant/motet for four voices (SATB) in polyphony by writing imitative counterpoint starting as from In manus tuas by Altus en Tenor followed by Superius and Bassus. It could be seen the place of the In manus tuas in the choirbook in Estremadura that this Antiphon is chosen by de Vivanco as an invitatory antiphon (Motet) or closing antiphon used at Matins of the Dead or at the Office of the Dead. Because it is published together with the Misa de Requiem taciturna and the oficio de difuntos and with some Lamentaciones, in the mentioned source below. The total motet consists out of 29 bar, it is a real short piece. Rather paradoxically, De Vivanco used In Manus tuas, much augmented, often changed unrecognizably, as the point of departure for probably his largest work, a parody mass for six voices. This four-part “In manus tuas, Domine” is preserved in manuscripts in the Guadalupe Monastery in Estremadura, Ms2, Real Monasterio de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, Archivo de Musica, MS ss (2), one of two choir-books copied at the beginning of the 17th century.
Author:Wim Goossens
Misa de Rèquiem (taciturna)
Period:Late Renaissance
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
In one source mentioned below is found a Requiem Mass, called Missa de Rèquiem taciturna by Sebastián de Vivanco. A Requiem Mass is preserved in manuscripts in the Guadalupe Monastery in Estremadura, Ms2, Real Monasterio de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, GU 2, one of two Choir-books copied at the beginning of the 17th century; Guadalupe, Real Monestir de Santa María, Arxiu de Música, MS s.s. (2).
Author:Wim Goossens
The Missa de Rèquiem (taciturna) contains:
- Introitus: Requiem aeternam
- Kyrie: Kyrië, Christe, Kyrië
- Tractus: Absolve, Domine
- Offertorium: Domine Iesu Christe
- Sanctus
- Benedictus
- Agnus Dei
- Ad absolutionem post missam:
- Responsorium: Libera me, Domine
- Motectum: Versa est in luctum
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Versa est in luctum
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1610c
Musical form:motet à 6 vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin Officium Defunctorum
Duration:5'26''
Label(s):CD SIG 119
CD GAU346
CD HYP55248
GCD 921405
Versa est in Luctum is a plainchant from the Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum Responsory from Matins of the Dead set by de Vivanco in a motet for six voices (SSATTB). The Versa est in luctum is an old Responsorium and even used and set by for instance Francisco de Peñalosa (c.1470-1528), Alonso Lobo (c.1535-1617), Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548-1611), Sebastián de Vivanco (c.1550-1622), Estêvão Lopes Morago (c.1575-1630), Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla (c.1590-1664) and José de Torres y Martinez Bravo (1665-1738). Those settings from “Versa est in luctum” have to be considered as an Iberian inheritance. There are about 138 Responsoria de Officium Defunctorum known and used during centuries in the Office of the Dead. They are all well ordered. The Versa est in Luctum is Respond nr 95. The belonging Versicle nr. 43 Cutis mea is not set by de Vivanco, like many others did not. The text is from the book of Job and has become in certain European regions a Respond in the Office of the Dead. This Respond is found with some introductions in two Offices of the Dead in Lyon. And from there it is spread into Europe. The settings in Spain and Portugal are taken from contemporary chant books containing responds which are deemed suitable for funeral purposes. In some instances, a motet was sung between the oration and the absolution. It was in any case traditional at that time to include some extra motets at the end of a Requiem Mass.
Beside the Versa est in luctum , the Sitivit anima mea and the Non mortui by Manual Cardoso (1566-1750) and the Sitivit anima mea by Pedro de Cristo (c.1540-1618) set by two Portuguese composers and present in this website have the same function. The text Versa est in luctum was not a direct part of the traditional Spanish liturgy but much more an extra-liturgical motet during the Obsequies of very important dignitaries of State or Church. De Vivanco and the other composers mentioned above must have found special inspiration in it, especially for funeral purposes. Those composers did it in an excellent but different way of character, due in the period they lived and the skills theu had.
This splendid six part motet by Vivanco starts with Superior 1, followed by Altus, Superior 2 , Tenor 1 Bassus and Tenor 2. The same theme is repeated in the beginning by Superior 1, Superior 2, Tenor 1 and Tenor 2 and the turned theme is sung in Altus and Bassus. But from bar 13 the Bassus repeated the original theme.
This motet has a steady interesting contrapuntal flow, which is interrupted at bar 55. From that place by the wording “Parce mihi” this Respond is in certain case more homophonic to underline the wording Parce mihi/ spare me! See Bars 56, 59 and 60. And in the “nihil enim sunt dies” starting in Cantus 2, bar 62, we see another short musical figure passed through all voices ending in a vast A-major. This motet consists out of 75 bars.
De Vivanco uses some accidentals (♮ by f sharp), some sharps has been used in the first and second part to express his feelings. This setting by Sebastián de Vivanco was published in the Salamanca manuscript 1610, Salamanca cathedral, Libro de Polifonia no. 5, ff40-49r. But only one copy is intact.
In this Salamanca manuscript is found too a five voice Respond Circumdederunt, but in the 1610 print Liber motectorum, Salamanca 1610 of seventy-three Vivanco motets is also present a eight-voice Domine secundum actum meum, Respond from the Office of the Dead, but unfortunately incomplete.
Author:Wim Goossens
Text
R. Versa est in luctum cithara mea et organum meum in vocem flentium. Parce mihi, Domine, nihil enim sunt dies mei.

Translation
R. My harp is tuned for lamentation and my organ into the voice of those who weep. Spare me Lord, for my days are as nothing.
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Circumdederunt me doloris mortis
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1610c
Musical form:Motet a 5 vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin from Officium Defunctorum
Duration:3'00
In memory of:GCD 921405
Text:
R. Circumdederunt me dolores mortis et pericula inferni invenerunt me.
(V. Tribulationem et dolorem inveni, et nomen Domini invocavi.)
V. O Domine, libera animam meam et convertere in requiem tuam.

Translation:
R. The anguish of death surrounds me; and the pains of hell hold upon me.
(V. met with trouble and sorrow, and I called upon the name of the Lord.)
V. O Lord, deliver my soul, and return unto thy rest.
Contributor:Wim Goossens
This Antiphon is used in the Officium Defunctorum ad Matutinum and set by De Vivanco for five voices (SSATB). The Circumdederunt is often especially used by Spanish and Portuguese composers in the Office of the Dead like Cristobal de Morales(c.1500-1553), Pedro Fernandez (1483-1547), Aires Fernandez (16th C.), Juan de Avila ( 16th C.), Hernando Franco (1532-1585), Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla (c.1590-1664), Bartolomeo Trosylho (1500-1567), the German Balthasar de Senarius (c.1485-1544) and even Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594), Jacob Regnart (1540-1599) and William Byrd (1543-1623) did. The settings by Jacobus Clemens and Philippus de Monte have until yet not been judged in this context. As we saw this Antiphon is set by them all as an invitatory Antiphon for the Office of the Dead. On the other hand the interesting plainchant Circumdederunt is often used in chansons, motets, parody masses, elegies and even used in the splendid Requiem Mass by the Jean Richafort (c.1480-c.1547) a composer belonging to the third Netherlandish generation. This Antiphon is chosen by de Vivanco as an invitatory antiphon (Motet) used at Matins of the Dead or at the Office of the Dead. This motet Circumdederunt is written in an vast polyphonic imitative flowing style and is divided in two parts. De Vivanco didn’t use the second verse, “Tribulationem”, placed between brackets by us see the Text below. The first part of this motet contains 40 bars starting with Tenor, followed by Superius 1, Altus, Superius 2 and Bassus, and starts in major, the second part contains 37 bars starting with Superius 1 and 2, followed by Altus, Bassus and Tenor. De Vivanco uses some accidentals. This five-part Circumdederunt me, is copied in the 18th century manuscript in Salamanca Cathedral collection and placed before the Respond Versa est in Luctum; in Salamanca, Arxiu de la Catedral, Llibre de polifonia No 1 (I-SA Llibre de polifonia No 1). In the 1610 print of a Liber motectorum, by printer Artus Taberniel, Antwerp-born who settled in Salamanca, the motet Circumdederunt is published and followed by an other eight part Respond Domine Secundum actum but unfortunately not complete. This Repond is too published and found in 2002 in Libros de polifonía de la Catedral Metropolitana de Mexico nr. 13, book with polyphonic music set solely (74 motets! in total) by Vivanco found in de cathedral archives of México-city (± 1600), the Circumdederunt has nr. 19.
Author:Wim Goossens